display Linux processes
Show only the processes with the given PID(s), passed as a comma-separated list. (Normally you wouldn't know PIDs off hand. This example picks the PIDs from the process name)
The traditional switches ` -' and whitespace are optional.
The (WE program provides a dynamic real-time view of a running system. It can display system summary information as well as a list of (TT currently being managed by the Linux kernel. The types of system summary information shown and the types, order and size of information displayed for processes are all user configurable and that configuration can be made persistent across restarts.
The program provides a limited interactive interface for process manipulation as well as a much more extensive interface for personal configuration (Em encompassing every aspect of its operation. And while (WE is referred to throughout this document, you are free to name the program anything you wish. That new name, possibly an alias, will then be reflected on (We's display and used when reading and writing a (CF.
DocumentationThe remaining Table of Contents
OVERVIEW Operation Linux Memory Types 1. COMMAND -LINE Options 2. SUMMARY Display a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages b. TASK and CPU States c. MEMORY Usage 3. FIELDS / Columns Display a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields b. MANAGING Fields 4. INTERACTIVE Commands a. GLOBAL Commands b. SUMMARY AREA Commands c. TASK AREA Commands 1. Appearance 2. Content 3. Size 4. Sorting d. COLOR Mapping 5. ALTERNATE -DISPLAY Provisions a. WINDOWS Overview b. COMMANDS for Windows c. SCROLLING a Window d. SEARCHING in a Window e. FILTERING in a Window 6. FILES a. PERSONAL Configuration File b. ADDING INSPECT Entries c. SYSTEM Configuration File d. SYSTEM Restrictions File 7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler a. Kernel Magic b. Bouncing Windows c. The Big Bird Window d. The Ol' Switcheroo 8. BUGS, 9. SEE Also
OperationWhen operating (We, the two most important keys are the help (h or ?) key and quit (`q') key. Alternatively, you could simply use the traditional interrupt key (^C) when you're done.
When started for the first time, you'll be presented with these traditional elements on the main (We screen: 1) Summary Area; 2) Fields/Columns Header; 3) Task Area. Each of these will be explored in the sections that follow. There is also an Input/Message line between the Summary Area and Columns Header which needs no further explanation.
The main (We screen is generally quite adaptive to changes in terminal dimensions under X-Windows. Other (We screens may be less so, especially those with static text. It ultimately depends, however, on your particular window manager and terminal emulator. There may be occasions when their view of terminal size and current contents differs from (We's view, which is always based on operating system calls.
Following any re-size operation, if a (We screen is corrupted, appears incomplete or disordered, simply typing something innocuous like a punctuation character or cursor motion key will usually restore it. In extreme cases, the following sequence almost certainly will:
key/cmdobjective ^Z suspend (We fg resume (We <Left> force a screen redraw (if necessary)
But if the display is still corrupted, there is one more step you could try. Insert this command after (We has been suspended but before resuming it.
key/cmdobjective reset restore your terminalsettings
(NT the width of (We's display will be limited to (WX positions. Displaying all fields requires (WF characters. Remaining screen width is usually allocated to any variable width columns currently visible. The variable width columns, such as COMMAND, are noted in topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields. Actual output width may also be influenced by the -w switch, which is discussed in topic 1. COMMAND -LINE Options.
Lastly, some of (We's screens or functions require the use of cursor motion keys like the standard (KAs plus the Home, End, PgUp and PgDn keys. If your terminal or emulator does not provide those keys, the following combinations are accepted as alternatives:
key equivalent-key-combinations Up alt + \ or alt + k Down alt + / or alt + j Left alt + < or alt + h Right alt + > or alt + l (lowercase L) PgUp alt + Up or alt + ctrl + k PgDn alt + Down or alt + ctrl + j Home alt + Left or alt + ctrl + h End alt + Right or alt + ctrl + l
The Up and Down (KAs have special significance when prompted for line input terminated with the <Enter> key. Those keys, or their aliases, can be used to retrieve previous input lines which can then be edited and re-input. And there are four additional keys available with line oriented input.
key special-significance Up recall older strings for re-editing Down recall newer strings or erase entire line Insert toggle between insert and overtype modes Delete character removed at cursor, moving others left Home jump to beginning of input line End jump to end of input line
Linux Memory TypesFor our purposes there are three types of memory, and one is optional. First is (MP, a limited resource where code and data must reside when executed or referenced. Next is the optional (MS, where modified (dirty) memory can be saved and later retrieved if too many demands are made on (MP. Lastly we have (MV, a nearly unlimited resource serving the following goals:
1. abstraction, free from physical memory addresses/limits 2. isolation, every process in a separate address space 3. sharing, a single mapping can serve multiple needs 4. flexibility, assign a virtual address to a file
Regardless of which of these forms memory may take, all are managed as pages (typically 4096 bytes) but expressed by default in (We as KiB (kibibyte). The memory discussed under topic `2c. MEMORY Usage' deals with (MP and the (MS for the system as a whole. The memory reviewed in topic `3. FIELDS / Columns Display' embraces all three memory types, but for individual processes.
For each such process, every memory page is restricted to a single quadrant from the table below. Both (MP and (MV can include any of the four, while the (MS only includes #1 through #3. The memory in quadrant #4, when modified, acts as its own dedicated (MS.
Private | Shared 1 | 2 Anonymous . stack | . malloc() | . brk()/sbrk() | . POSIX shm* . mmap(PRIVATE, ANON) | . mmap(SHARED, ANON) -----------------------+---------------------- . mmap(PRIVATE, fd) | . mmap(SHARED, fd) File-backed . pgms/shared libs | 3 | 4
The following may help in interpreting process level memory values displayed as scalable columns and discussed under topic `3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields'.
%MEM -simply RES divided by total (MP CODE -the `pgms' portion of quadrant 3 DATA -the entire quadrant 1 portion of VIRT plus all explicit mmap file-backed pages of quadrant 3 RES -anything occupying (MP which, beginning with Linux-4.5, is the sum of the following three fields: RSan -quadrant 1 pages, which include any former quadrant 3 pages if modified RSfd -quadrant 3 and quadrant 4 pages RSsh -quadrant 2 pages RSlk -subset of RES which cannot be swapped out (any quadrant) SHR -subset of RES (excludes 1 ,includes all 2 & 4 ,some 3 ) SWAP -potentially any quadrant except 4 USED -simply the sum of RES and SWAP VIRT -everything in-use and/or reserved (all quadrants)
(NT Even though program images and shared libraries are considered private to a process, they will be accounted for as shared (SHR) by the kernel.
The command-line syntax for (We consists of:
The typically mandatory switch (` -') and even whitespace are completely optional.
5 - h | - v : Help/Version Show library version and the usage prompt, then quit.
5 - b : Batch-mode operation Starts (We in Batch mode, which could be useful for sending output from (We to other programs or to a file. In this mode, (We will not accept input and runs until the iterations limit you've set with the ` -n' (CO or until killed.
5 - c : Command-line/Program-name toggle Starts (We with the last remembered `c' state reversed. Thus, if (We was displaying command lines, now that field will show program names, and vice versa. (XC `c' (CI for additional information.
5 - d : Delay-time interval as: -dss.t ( secs . tenths ) Specifies the delay between screen updates, and overrides the corresponding value in one's personal (CF or the startup default. Later this can be changed with the `d' or `s' (CIs.
Fractional seconds are honored, but a negative number is not allowed. In all cases, however, such changes are prohibited if (We is running in Secure mode, except for root (unless the `s' (CO was used). For additional information on Secure mode (Xt 6d. SYSTEM Restrictions File.
5 - E : Extend-Memory-Scaling as: -Ek | m | g | t | p | e Instructs (We to force (SA memory to be scaled as:
k -kibibytes m -mebibytes g -gibibytes t -tebibytes p -pebibytes e -exbibytes
Later this can be changed with the `E' (CT.
5 - H : Threads-mode operation Instructs (We to display individual threads. Without this (CO a summation of all threads in each process is shown. Later this can be changed with the `H' (CI.
5 - i : Idle-process toggle Starts (We with the last remembered `i' state reversed. When this toggle is F, tasks that have not used any (PU since the last update will not be displayed. For additional information regarding this toggle (Xt 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SIZE.
5 - n : Number-of-iterations limit as: -n number Specifies the maximum number of iterations, or frames, (We should produce before ending.
5 - o : Override-sort-field as: -o fieldname Specifies the name of the field on which tasks will be sorted, independent of what is reflected in the configuration file. You can prepend a `+' or ` -' to the field name to also override the sort direction. A leading `+' will force sorting high to low, whereas a ` -' will ensure a low to high ordering.
This option exists primarily to support automated/scripted batch mode operation.
5 - O : Output-field-names This option acts as a form of help for the above -o option. It will cause (We to print each of the available field names on a separate line, then quit. Such names are subject to NLS (National Language Support) translation.
5 - p : Monitor-PIDs mode as: -pN1 -pN2 ... or -pN1,N2,N3 ... Monitor only processes with specified process IDs. This option can be given up to (WP times, or you can provide a comma delimited list with up to (WP pids. Co-mingling both approaches is permitted.
A pid value of zero will be treated as the process id of the (We program itself once it is running.
This is a (CO only and should you wish to return to normal operation, it is not necessary to quit and restart (We (Em just issue any of these (CIs: `=', `u' or `U'.
The `p', `u' and `U' (COs are mutually exclusive.
5 - s : Secure-mode operation Starts (We with secure mode forced, even for root. This mode is far better controlled through a system (CF ( (Xt 6. FILES).
5 - S : Cumulative-time toggle Starts (We with the last remembered `S' state reversed. When Cumulative time mode is O, each process is listed with the (Pu time that it and its dead children have used. (XC `S' (CI for additional information regarding this mode.
5 - u | - U : User-filter-mode as: -u | -Unumber or name Display only processes with a user id or user name matching that given. The ` -u' option matches on effective user whereas the ` -U' option matches on any user (real, effective, saved, or filesystem).
Prepending an exclamation point (`!') to the user id or name instructs (We to display only processes with users not matching the one provided.
The `p', `u' and `U' (COs are mutually exclusive.
5 - w : Output-width-override as: -w [ number ] In Batch mode, when used without an argument (We will format output using the COLUMNS= and LINES= environment variables, if set. Otherwise, width will be fixed at the maximum (WX columns. With an argument, output width can be decreased or increased (up to (WX) but the number of rows is considered unlimited.
In normal display mode, when used without an argument (We will attempt to format output using the COLUMNS= and LINES= environment variables, if set. With an argument, output width can only be decreased, not increased. Whether using environment variables or an argument with -w, when not in Batch mode actual terminal dimensions can never be exceeded.
(NT Without the use of this (CO, output width is always based on the terminal at which (We was invoked whether or not in Batch mode.
5 - 1 : Single/Separate-Cpu-States toggle Starts (We with the last remembered Cpu States portion of the (SA reversed. Either all (Pu information will be displayed in a single line or each (Pu will be displayed separately, depending on the state of the NUMA Node (CT ('2').
(XC `1' and '2' (CIs for additional information.
Each of the following three areas are individually controlled through one or more (CIs. (XT 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands for additional information regarding these provisions.
2a. UPTIME and LOAD AveragesThis portion consists of a single line containing:
program or window name, depending on display mode current time and length of time since last boot total number of users system load avg over the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes
2b. TASK and CPU StatesThis portion consists of a minimum of two lines. In an SMP environment, additional lines can reflect individual (PU state percentages.
Line 1 shows total tasks or threads ,depending on the state of the Threads-mode toggle. That total is further classified as:
running; sleeping; stopped; zombie
Line 2 shows (PU state percentages based on the interval since the last refresh.
As a default, percentages for these individual categories are displayed. Where two labels are shown below, those for more recent kernel versions are shown first.
us , user : time running un-niced user processes sy , system : time running kernel processes ni , nice : time running niced user processes id , idle : time spent in the kernel idle handler wa , IO-wait : time waiting for I/O completion hi : time spent servicing hardware interrupts si : time spent servicing software interrupts st : time stolen from this vm by the hypervisor
In the alternate cpu states display modes, beyond the first tasks/threads line, an abbreviated summary is shown consisting of these elements:
a b c d %Cpu(s): 75.0 /25.0 100 [...
Where: a) is the combined us and ni percentage; b) is the sy percentage; c) is the total; and d) is one of two visual graphs of those representations. (XT 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands and the `t' command for additional information on that special 4-way toggle.
2c. MEMORY UsageThis portion consists of two lines which may express values in kibibytes (KiB) through exbibytes (EiB) depending on the scaling factor enforced with the `E' (CI.
As a default, Line 1 reflects (MP, classified as:
total, free, used and buff/cache
Line 2 reflects mostly (MV, classified as:
total, free, used and avail (which is (MP)
The avail number on line 2 is an estimation of (MP available for starting new applications, without swapping. Unlike the free field, it attempts to account for readily reclaimable page cache and memory slabs. It is available on kernels 3.14, emulated on kernels 2.6.27+, otherwise the same as free .
In the alternate memory display modes, two abbreviated summary lines are shown consisting of these elements:
a b c GiB Mem : 18.7 /15.738[ ... GiB Swap: 0.0 /7.999[ ...
Where: a) is the percentage used; b) is the total available; and c) is one of two visual graphs of those representations.
In the case of (MP, the percentage represents the total minus the estimated avail noted above. The `Mem' graph itself is divided between used and any remaining memory not otherwise accounted for by avail . (XT 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands and the `m' command for additional information on that special 4-way toggle.
This table may help in interpreting the scaled values displayed:
KiB = kibibyte = 1024 bytes MiB = mebibyte = 1024 KiB = 1,048,576 bytes GiB = gibibyte = 1024 MiB = 1,073,741,824 bytes TiB = tebibyte = 1024 GiB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes PiB = pebibyte = 1024 TiB = 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes EiB = exbibyte = 1024 PiB = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes
3a. DESCRIPTIONS of FieldsListed below are (We's available process fields (columns). They are shown in strict ascii alphabetical order. You may customize their position and whether or not they are displayable with the `f' or `F' (Fields Management) (CIs.
Any field is selectable as the sort field, and you control whether they are sorted high-to-low or low-to-high. For additional information on sort provisions (Xt 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SORTING.
The fields related to (MP or (MV reference `(KiB)' which is the unsuffixed display mode. Such fields may, however, be scaled from KiB through PiB. That scaling is influenced via the `e' (CI or established for startup through a build option.
4 1. %CPU (Em (PU Usage The task's share of the elapsed (PU time since the last screen update, expressed as a percentage of total (PU time.
In a true SMP environment, if a process is multi-threaded and (We is not operating in Threads mode, amounts greater than 100% may be reported. You toggle Threads mode with the `H' (CI.
Also for multi-processor environments, if Irix mode is F, (We will operate in Solaris mode where a task's (Pu usage will be divided by the total number of (PUs. You toggle Irix/Solaris modes with the `I' (CI.
4 2. %MEM (Em Memory Usage (RES) A task's currently resident share of available (MP.
4 3. CGNAME (Em Control Group Name The name of the control group to which a process belongs, or ` -' if not applicable for that process.
This will typically be the last entry in the full list of control groups as shown under the next heading (CGROUPS). And as is true there, this field is also variable width.
4 4. CGROUPS (Em Control Groups The names of the control group(s) to which a process belongs, or ` -' if not applicable for that process.
Control Groups provide for allocating resources (cpu, memory, network bandwidth, etc.) among installation-defined groups of processes. They enable fine-grained control over allocating, denying, prioritizing, managing and monitoring those resources.
Many different hierarchies of cgroups can exist simultaneously on a system and each hierarchy is attached to one or more subsystems. A subsystem represents a single resource.
(NT The CGROUPS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum (WX characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data.
4 5. CODE (Em Code Size (KiB) The amount of (MP currently devoted to executable code, also known as the Text Resident Set size or TRS.
4 6. COMMAND (Em Command Name or Command Line Display the command line used to start a task or the name of the associated program. You toggle between command line and name with `c', which is both a (CO and an (CI.
When you've chosen to display command lines, processes without a command line (like kernel threads) will be shown with only the program name in brackets, as in this example: [kthreadd]
This field may also be impacted by the forest view display mode. (XC `V' (CI for additional information regarding that mode.
(NT The COMMAND field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum (WX characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. This is especially true for this field when command lines are being displayed (the `c' (CI.) (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data.
4 7. DATA (Em Data + Stack Size (KiB) The amount of private memory reserved by a process. It is also known as the Data Resident Set or DRS. Such memory may not yet be mapped to (MP (RES) but will always be included in the (MV (VIRT) amount.
4 8. ENVIRON (Em Environment variables Display all of the environment variables, if any, as seen by the respective processes. These variables will be displayed in their raw native order, not the sorted order you are accustomed to seeing with an unqualified `set'.
(NT The ENVIRON field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum (WX characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. This is especially true for this field. (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data.
4 9. Flags (Em Task Flags This column represents the task's current scheduling flags which are expressed in hexadecimal notation and with zeros suppressed. These flags are officially documented in <linux/sched.h>.
4 10. GID (Em Group Id The effective group ID.
4 11. GROUP (Em Group Name The effective group name.
4 12. LXC (Em Lxc Container Name The name of the lxc container within which a task is running. If a process is not running inside a container, a dash (` -') will be shown.
4 13. NI (Em Nice Value The nice value of the task. A negative nice value means higher priority, whereas a positive nice value means lower priority. Zero in this field simply means priority will not be adjusted in determining a task's dispatch-ability.
4 14. NU (Em Last known NUMA node A number representing the NUMA node associated with the last used processor (`P'). When -1 is displayed it means that NUMA information is not available.
(XC `'2' and `3' (CIs for additional NUMA provisions affecting the (SA.
4 15. OOMa (Em Out of Memory Adjustment Factor The value, ranging from -1000 to +1000, added to the current out of memory score (OOMs) which is then used to determine which task to kill when memory is exhausted.
4 16. OOMs (Em Out of Memory Score The value, ranging from 0 to +1000, used to select task(s) to kill when memory is exhausted. Zero translates to `never kill' whereas 1000 means `always kill'.
4 17. P (Em Last used (PU (SMP) A number representing the last used processor. In a true SMP environment this will likely change frequently since the kernel intentionally uses weak affinity. Also, the very act of running (We may break this weak affinity and cause more processes to change (PUs more often (because of the extra demand for (Pu time).
4 18. PGRP (Em Process Group Id Every process is member of a unique process group which is used for distribution of signals and by terminals to arbitrate requests for their input and output. When a process is created (forked), it becomes a member of the process group of its parent. By convention, this value equals the process ID ( (Xa PID) of the first member of a process group, called the process group leader.
4 19. PID (Em Process Id The task's unique process ID, which periodically wraps, though never restarting at zero. In kernel terms, it is a dispatchable entity defined by a task_struct.
This value may also be used as: a process group ID ( (Xa PGRP); a session ID for the session leader ( (Xa SID); a thread group ID for the thread group leader ( (Xa TGID); and a TTY process group ID for the process group leader ( (Xa TPGID).
4 20. PPID (Em Parent Process Id The process ID (pid) of a task's parent.
4 21. PR (Em Priority The scheduling priority of the task. If you see `rt' in this field, it means the task is running under real time scheduling priority.
Under linux, real time priority is somewhat misleading since traditionally the operating itself was not preemptible. And while the 2.6 kernel can be made mostly preemptible, it is not always so.
4 22. RES (Em Resident Memory Size (KiB) A subset of the virtual address space (VIRT) representing the non-swapped (MP a task is currently using. It is also the sum of the RSan, RSfd and RSsh fields.
It can include private anonymous pages, private pages mapped to files (including program images and shared libraries) plus shared anonymous pages. All such memory is backed by the (MS represented separately under SWAP.
Lastly, this field may also include shared file-backed pages which, when modified, act as a dedicated (MS and thus will never impact SWAP.
4 23. RSan (Em Resident Anonymous Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) representing private pages not mapped to a file.
4 24. RSfd (Em Resident File-Backed Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) representing the implicitly shared pages supporting program images and shared libraries. It also includes explicit file mappings, both private and shared.
4 25. RSlk (Em Resident Locked Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) which cannot be swapped out.
4 26. RSsh (Em Resident Shared Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) representing the explicitly shared anonymous shm*/mmap pages.
4 27. RUID (Em Real User Id The real user ID.
4 28. RUSER (Em Real User Name The real user name.
4 29. S (Em Process Status The status of the task which can be one of: D = uninterruptible sleep I = idle R = running S = sleeping T = stopped by job control signal t = stopped by debugger during trace Z = zombie
Tasks shown as running should be more properly thought of as ready to run (Em their task_struct is simply represented on the Linux run-queue. Even without a true SMP machine, you may see numerous tasks in this state depending on (We's delay interval and nice value.
4 30. SHR (Em Shared Memory Size (KiB) A subset of resident memory (RES) that may be used by other processes. It will include shared anonymous pages and shared file-backed pages. It also includes private pages mapped to files representing program images and shared libraries.
4 31. SID (Em Session Id A session is a collection of process groups ( (Xa PGRP), usually established by the login shell. A newly forked process joins the session of its creator. By convention, this value equals the process ID ( (Xa PID) of the first member of the session, called the session leader, which is usually the login shell.
4 32. SUID (Em Saved User Id The saved user ID.
4 33. SUPGIDS (Em Supplementary Group IDs The IDs of any supplementary group(s) established at login or inherited from a task's parent. They are displayed in a comma delimited list.
(NT The SUPGIDS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum (WX characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data.
4 34. SUPGRPS (Em Supplementary Group Names The names of any supplementary group(s) established at login or inherited from a task's parent. They are displayed in a comma delimited list.
(NT The SUPGRPS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width. When displayed, it plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up to the maximum (WX characters). Even so, such variable width fields could still suffer truncation. (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data.
4 35. SUSER (Em Saved User Name The saved user name.
4 36. SWAP (Em Swapped Size (KiB) The formerly resident portion of a task's address space written to the (MS when (MP becomes over committed.
4 37. TGID (Em Thread Group Id The ID of the thread group to which a task belongs. It is the PID of the thread group leader. In kernel terms, it represents those tasks that share an mm_struct.
4 38. TIME (Em (PU Time Total (PU time the task has used since it started. When Cumulative mode is O, each process is listed with the (Pu time that it and its dead children have used. You toggle Cumulative mode with `S', which is both a (CO and an (CI. (XC `S' (CI for additional information regarding this mode.
4 39. TIME+ (Em (PU Time, hundredths The same as TIME, but reflecting more granularity through hundredths of a second.
4 40. TPGID (Em Tty Process Group Id The process group ID of the foreground process for the connected tty, or -1 if a process is not connected to a terminal. By convention, this value equals the process ID ( (Xa PID) of the process group leader ( (Xa PGRP).
4 41. TTY (Em Controlling Tty The name of the controlling terminal. This is usually the device (serial port, pty, etc.) from which the process was started, and which it uses for input or output. However, a task need not be associated with a terminal, in which case you'll see `?' displayed.
4 42. UID (Em User Id The effective user ID of the task's owner.
4 43. USED (Em Memory in Use (KiB) This field represents the non-swapped (MP a task is using (RES) plus the swapped out portion of its address space (SWAP).
4 44. USER (Em User Name The effective user name of the task's owner.
4 45. VIRT (Em Virtual Memory Size (KiB) The total amount of (MV used by the task. It includes all code, data and shared libraries plus pages that have been swapped out and pages that have been mapped but not used.
4 46. WCHAN (Em Sleeping in Function This field will show the name of the kernel function in which the task is currently sleeping. Running tasks will display a dash (` -') in this column.
4 47. nDRT (Em Dirty Pages Count The number of pages that have been modified since they were last written to (AS. Dirty pages must be written to (AS before the corresponding physical memory location can be used for some other virtual page.
This field was deprecated with linux 2.6 and is always zero.
4 48. nMaj (Em Major Page Fault Count The number of major page faults that have occurred for a task. A page fault occurs when a process attempts to read from or write to a virtual page that is not currently present in its address space. A major page fault is when (AS access is involved in making that page available.
4 49. nMin (Em Minor Page Fault count The number of minor page faults that have occurred for a task. A page fault occurs when a process attempts to read from or write to a virtual page that is not currently present in its address space. A minor page fault does not involve (AS access in making that page available.
4 50. nTH (Em Number of Threads The number of threads associated with a process.
4 51. nsIPC (Em IPC namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate interprocess communication (IPC) resources such as System V IPC objects and POSIX message queues.
4 52. nsMNT (Em MNT namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate filesystem mount points thus offering different views of the filesystem hierarchy.
4 53. nsNET (Em NET namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate resources such as network devices, IP addresses, IP routing, port numbers, etc.
4 54. nsPID (Em PID namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate process ID numbers meaning they need not remain unique. Thus, each such namespace could have its own `init/systemd' (PID #1) to manage various initialization tasks and reap orphaned child processes.
4 55. nsUSER (Em USER namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate the user and group ID numbers. Thus, a process could have a normal unprivileged user ID outside a user namespace while having a user ID of 0, with full root privileges, inside that namespace.
4 56. nsUTS (Em UTS namespace The Inode of the namespace used to isolate hostname and NIS domain name. UTS simply means "UNIX Time-sharing System".
4 57. vMj (Em Major Page Fault Count Delta The number of major page faults that have occurred since the last update (see nMaj).
4 58. vMn (Em Minor Page Fault Count Delta The number of minor page faults that have occurred since the last update (see nMin).
3b. MANAGING FieldsAfter pressing the (CI `f' or `F' (Fields Management) you will be presented with a screen showing: 1) the (CW name; 2) the designated sort field; 3) all fields in their current order along with descriptions. Entries marked with an asterisk are the currently displayed fields, screen width permitting.
3 As the on screen instructions indicate, you navigate among the fields with the Up and Down (KAs. The PgUp, PgDn, Home and End keys can also be used to quickly reach the first or last available field.
3 The Right (KA selects a field for repositioning and the Left (KA or the < Enter >key commits that field's placement.
3 The ` d 'key or the < Space >bar toggles a field's display status, and thus the presence or absence of the asterisk.
3 The ` s 'key designates a field as the sort field. (XT 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for additional information regarding your selection of a sort field.
3 The ` a 'and ` w 'keys can be used to cycle through all available windows and the ` q 'or < Esc >keys exit Fields Management.
The Fields Management screen can also be used to change the (CG in either (FM or (AM. Whatever was targeted when `q' or <Esc> was pressed will be made current as you return to the (We display. (XT 5. ALTERNATE -DISPLAY Provisions and the `g' (CI for insight into (CWs and (FGs.
(NT Any window that has been scrolled horizontally will be reset if any field changes are made via the Fields Management screen. Any vertical scrolled position, however, will not be affected. (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.
Listed below is a brief index of commands within categories. Some commands appear more than once (Em their meaning or scope may vary depending on the context in which they are issued.
4a. Global-Commands <Ent/Sp> ?, =, 0, A, B, d, E, e, g, h, H, I, k, q, r, s, W, X, Y, Z 4b. Summary-Area-Commands C, l, t, m, 1, 2, 3 4c. Task-Area-Commands Appearance: b, J, j, x, y, z Content: c, f, F, o, O, S, u, U, V Size: #, i, n Sorting: <, >, f, F, R 4d. Color-Mapping <Ret>, a, B, b, H, M, q, S, T, w, z, 0 -7 5b. Commands-for-Windows -, _, =, +, A, a, g, G, w 5c. Scrolling-a-Window C, Up, Dn, Left, Right, PgUp, PgDn, Home, End 5d. Searching-in-a-Window L, &
4a. GLOBAL CommandsThe global (CIs are always available in both (FM and (AM. However, some of these (CIs are not available when running in Secure mode.
If you wish to know in advance whether or not your (We has been secured, simply ask for help and view the system summary on the second line.
7 < Enter >or < Space >: Refresh-Display These commands awaken (We and following receipt of any input the entire display will be repainted. They also force an update of any hotplugged (Pu or (MP changes.
Use either of these keys if you have a large delay interval and wish to see current status,
7 ? | h : Help There are two help levels available. The first will provide a reminder of all the basic (CIs. If (We is secured ,that screen will be abbreviated.
Typing `h' or `?' on that help screen will take you to help for those (CIs applicable to (AM.
7 = : Exit-Task-Limits Removes restrictions on which tasks are shown. This command will reverse any `i' (idle tasks) and `n' (max tasks) commands that might be active. It also provides for an exit from PID monitoring, User filtering, Other filtering and Locate processing. See the ` -p' (CO for a discussion of PID monitoring, the `U' or `u' (CIs for User filtering the `O' or `o' (CIs for Other filtering and `L' or `&' (CIs for Locate processing.
Additionally, any window that has been scrolled will be reset with this command. (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.
When operating in (AM this command has a broader meaning.
7 0 : Zero-Suppress toggle This command determines whether zeros are shown or suppressed for many of the fields in a (TW. Fields like UID, GID, NI, PR or P are not affected by this toggle.
7 A : Alternate-Display-Mode toggle This command will switch between (FM and (AM. (XT 5. ALTERNATE -DISPLAY Provisions and the `g' (CI for insight into (CWs and (FGs.
7 B : Bold-Disable/Enable toggle This command will influence use of the bold terminfo capability and alters both the (SA and (TA for the (CW. While it is intended primarily for use with dumb terminals, it can be applied anytime.
(NT When this toggle is O and (We is operating in monochrome mode, the entire display will appear as normal text. Thus, unless the `x' and/or `y' toggles are using reverse for emphasis, there will be no visual confirmation that they are even on.
7 * d | s : Change-Delay-Time-interval You will be prompted to enter the delay time, in seconds, between display updates.
Fractional seconds are honored, but a negative number is not allowed. Entering 0 causes (nearly) continuous updates, with an unsatisfactory display as the system and tty driver try to keep up with (We's demands. The delay value is inversely proportional to system loading, so set it with care.
If at any time you wish to know the current delay time, simply ask for help and view the system summary on the second line.
7 E : Extend-Memory-Scale in Summary Area With this command you can cycle through the available (SA memory scaling which ranges from KiB (kibibytes or 1,024 bytes) through EiB (exbibytes or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes).
If you see a `+' between a displayed number and the following label, it means that (We was forced to truncate some portion of that number. By raising the scaling factor, such truncation can be avoided.
7 e : Extend-Memory-Scale in Task Windows With this command you can cycle through the available (TW memory scaling which ranges from KiB (kibibytes or 1,024 bytes) through PiB (pebibytes or 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes).
While (We will try to honor the selected target range, additional scaling might still be necessary in order to accommodate current values. If you wish to see a more homogeneous result in the memory columns, raising the scaling range will usually accomplish that goal. Raising it too high, however, is likely to produce an all zero result which cannot be suppressed with the `0' (CI.
7 g : Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 designating the (FG which should be made the (CW. You will soon grow comfortable with these 4 windows, especially after experimenting with (AM.
7 H : Threads-mode toggle When this toggle is O, individual threads will be displayed for all processes in all visible (TWs. Otherwise, (We displays a summation of all threads in each process.
7 I : Irix/Solaris-Mode toggle When operating in Solaris mode (`I' toggled F), a task's (Pu usage will be divided by the total number of (PUs. After issuing this command, you'll be told the new state of this toggle.
7 * k : Kill-a-task You will be prompted for a PID and then the signal to send.
Entering no PID or a negative number will be interpreted as the default shown in the prompt (the first task displayed). A PID value of zero means the (We program itself.
The default signal, as reflected in the prompt, is SIGTERM. However, you can send any signal, via number or name.
If you wish to abort the kill process, do one of the following depending on your progress:
1) at the pid prompt, type an invalid number 2) at the signal prompt, type 0 (or any invalid signal) 3) at any prompt, type <Esc>
7 q : Quit
7 * r : Renice-a-Task You will be prompted for a PID and then the value to nice it to.
Entering no PID or a negative number will be interpreted as the default shown in the prompt (the first task displayed). A PID value of zero means the (We program itself.
A positive nice value will cause a process to lose priority. Conversely, a negative nice value will cause a process to be viewed more favorably by the kernel. As a general rule, ordinary users can only increase the nice value and are prevented from lowering it.
If you wish to abort the renice process, do one of the following depending on your progress:
1) at the pid prompt, type an invalid number 2) at the nice prompt, type <Enter> with no input 3) at any prompt, type <Esc>
7 W : Write-the-Configuration-File This will save all of your options and toggles plus the current display mode and delay time. By issuing this command just before quitting (We, you will be able restart later in exactly that same state.
7 X : Extra-Fixed-Width Some fields are fixed width and not scalable. As such, they are subject to truncation which would be indicated by a `+' in the last position.
This (CI can be used to alter the widths of the following fields:
field default field default field default GID 5 GROUP 8 WCHAN 10 RUID 5 LXC 8 nsIPC 10 SUID 5 RUSER 8 nsMNT 10 UID 5 SUSER 8 nsNET 10 TTY 8 nsPID 10 USER 8 nsUSER 10 nsUTS 10
You will be prompted for the amount to be added to the default widths shown above. Entering zero forces a return to those defaults.
If you enter a negative number, (We will automatically increase the column size as needed until there is no more truncated data. You can accelerate this process by reducing the delay interval or holding down the <Space> bar.
(NT Whether explicitly or automatically increased, the widths for these fields are never decreased by (We. To narrow them you must specify a smaller number or restore the defaults.
7 Y : Inspect-Other-Output After issuing the `Y' (CI, you will be prompted for a target PID. Typing a value or accepting the default results in a separate screen. That screen can be used to view a variety of files or piped command output while the normal (We iterative display is paused.
(NT This (CI is only fully realized when supporting entries have been manually added to the end of the (We (CF. For details on creating those entries, (Xt 6b. ADDING INSPECT Entries.
Most of the keys used to navigate the Inspect feature are reflected in its header prologue. There are, however, additional keys available once you have selected a particular file or command. They are familiar to anyone who has used the pager `less' and are summarized here for future reference.
key function = alternate status -line, file or pipeline / find, equivalent to `L' locate n find next, equivalent to `&' locate next <Space> scroll down, equivalent to <PgDn> b scroll up, equivalent to <PgUp> g first line, equivalent to <Home> G last line, equivalent to <End>
7 Z : Change-Color-Mapping This key will take you to a separate screen where you can change the colors for the (CW, or for all windows. For details regarding this (CI (Xt 4d. COLOR Mapping.
"*" 3 The commands shown with an (AK are not available in Secure mode, nor will they be shown on the level-1 help screen.
4b. SUMMARY AREA CommandsThe (SA (CIs are always available in both (FM and (AM. They affect the beginning lines of your display and will determine the position of messages and prompts.
These commands always impact just the (CG. (XT 5. ALTERNATE -DISPLAY Provisions and the `g' (CI for insight into (CWs and (FGs.
7 C : Show-scroll-coordinates toggle Toggle an informational message which is displayed whenever the message line is not otherwise being used. For additional information (Xt 5c. SCROLLING a Window.
7 l : Load-Average/Uptime toggle This is also the line containing the program name (possibly an alias) when operating in (FM or the (CW name when operating in (AM.
7 t : Task/Cpu-States toggle This command affects from 2 to many (SA lines, depending on the state of the `1', `2' or `3' (CTs and whether or not (We is running under true SMP.
This portion of the (SA is also influenced by the `H' (CI toggle, as reflected in the total label which shows either Tasks or Threads.
This command serves as a 4-way toggle, cycling through these modes:
1. detailed percentages by category 2. abbreviated user/system and total % + bar graph 3. abbreviated user/system and total % + block graph 4. turn off task and cpu states display
When operating in either of the graphic modes, the display becomes much more meaningful when individual CPUs or NUMA nodes are also displayed. (XC the `1', `2' and `3' commands below for additional information.
7 m : Memory/Swap-Usage toggle This command affects the two (SA lines dealing with physical and virtual memory.
This command serves as a 4-way toggle, cycling through these modes:
1. detailed percentages by memory type 2. abbreviated % used/total available + bar graph 3. abbreviated % used/total available + block graph 4. turn off memory display
7 1 : Single/Separate-Cpu-States toggle This command affects how the `t' command's Cpu States portion is shown. Although this toggle exists primarily to serve massively-parallel SMP machines, it is not restricted to solely SMP environments.
When you see `%Cpu(s):' in the (SA, the `1' toggle is O and all (Pu information is gathered in a single line. Otherwise, each (Pu is displayed separately as: `%Cpu0, %Cpu1, ...' up to available screen height.
7 2 : NUMA-Nodes/Cpu-Summary toggle This command toggles between the `1' command cpu summary display (only) or a summary display plus the cpu usage statistics for each NUMA Node. It is only available if a system has the requisite NUMA support.
7 3 : Expand-NUMA-Node You will be invited to enter a number representing a NUMA Node. Thereafter, a node summary plus the statistics for each cpu in that node will be shown until either the `1' or `2' (CT is pressed. This (CI is only available if a system has the requisite NUMA support.
(NT If the entire (SA has been toggled F for any window, you would be left with just the message line . In that way, you will have maximized available task rows but (temporarily) sacrificed the program name in (FM or the (CW name when in (AM.
4c. TASK AREA CommandsThe (TA (CIs are always available in (FM.
The (TA (CIs are never available in (AM if the (CW's (TD has been toggled F ( (Xt 5. ALTERNATE -DISPLAY Provisions).
APPEARANCE of (TW
7 J : Justify-Numeric-Columns toggle Alternates between right-justified (the default) and left-justified numeric data. If the numeric data completely fills the available column, this (CT may impact the column header only.
7 j : Justify-Character-Columns toggle Alternates between left-justified (the default) and right-justified character data. If the character data completely fills the available column, this (CT may impact the column header only.
The following commands will also be influenced by the state of the global `B' (bold enable) toggle.
7 b : Bold/Reverse toggle This command will impact how the `x' and `y' toggles are displayed. It may also impact the (SA when a bar graph has been selected for (Pu states or memory usage via the `t' or `m' toggles.
7 x : Column-Highlight toggle Changes highlighting for the current sort field. If you forget which field is being sorted this command can serve as a quick visual reminder, providing the sort field is being displayed. The sort field might not be visible because: 1) there is insufficient Screen Width 2) the `f' (CI turned it F
(NT Whenever Searching and/or Other Filtering is active in a window, column highlighting is temporarily disabled. (XC notes at the end of topics 5d. SEARCHING and 5e. FILTERING for an explanation why.
7 y : Row-Highlight toggle Changes highlighting for "running" tasks. For additional insight into this task state, (Xt 3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields, the `S' field (Process Status).
Use of this provision provides important insight into your system's health. The only costs will be a few additional tty escape sequences.
7 z : Color/Monochrome toggle Switches the (CW between your last used color scheme and the older form of black-on-white or white-on-black. This command will alter both the (SA and (TA but does not affect the state of the `x', `y' or `b' toggles.
CONTENT of (TW
7 c : Command-Line/Program-Name toggle This command will be honored whether or not the COMMAND column is currently visible. Later, should that field come into view, the change you applied will be seen.
7 f | F : Fields-Management These keys display a separate screen where you can change which fields are displayed, their order and also designate the sort field. For additional information on these (CIs (Xt 3b. MANAGING Fields.
7 o | O : Other-Filtering You will be prompted for the selection criteria which then determines which tasks will be shown in the (CW. Your criteria can be made case sensitive or case can be ignored. And you determine if (We should include or exclude matching tasks.
(XT 5e. FILTERING in a window for details on these and additional related (CIs.
7 S : Cumulative-Time-Mode toggle When Cumulative mode is O, each process is listed with the (Pu time that it and its dead children have used.
When F, programs that fork into many separate tasks will appear less demanding. For programs like `init' or a shell this is appropriate but for others, like compilers, perhaps not. Experiment with two (TWs sharing the same sort field but with different `S' states and see which representation you prefer.
After issuing this command, you'll be informed of the new state of this toggle. If you wish to know in advance whether or not Cumulative mode is in effect, simply ask for help and view the window summary on the second line.
7 u | U : Show-Specific-User-Only You will be prompted for the uid or name of the user to display. The -u option matches on effective user whereas the -U option matches on any user (real, effective, saved, or filesystem).
Thereafter, in that (TW only matching users will be shown, or possibly no processes will be shown. Prepending an exclamation point (`!') to the user id or name instructs (We to display only processes with users not matching the one provided.
Different (TWs can be used to filter different users. Later, if you wish to monitor all users again in the (CW, re-issue this command but just press <Enter> at the prompt.
7 V : Forest-View-Mode toggle In this mode, processes are reordered according to their parents and the layout of the COMMAND column resembles that of a tree. In forest view mode it is still possible to toggle between program name and command line ( (Xc `c' (CI) or between processes and threads ( (Xc `H' (CI).
(NT Typing any key affecting the sort order will exit forest view mode in the (CW. (XT 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SORTING for information on those keys.
SIZE of (TW
7 i : Idle-Process toggle Displays all tasks or just active tasks. When this toggle is F, tasks that have not used any (PU since the last update will not be displayed. However, due to the granularity of the %CPU and TIME+ fields, some processes may still be displayed that appear to have used no (PU.
If this command is applied to the last (TD when in (AM, then it will not affect the window's size, as all prior (TDs will have already been painted.
7 n | # : Set-Maximum-Tasks You will be prompted to enter the number of tasks to display. The lessor of your number and available screen rows will be used.
When used in (AM, this is the command that gives you precise control over the size of each currently visible (TD, except for the very last. It will not affect the last window's size, as all prior (TDs will have already been painted.
(NT If you wish to increase the size of the last visible (TD when in (AM, simply decrease the size of the (TD(s) above it.
SORTING of (TW
For compatibility, this (We supports most of the former (We sort keys. Since this is primarily a service to former (We users, these commands do not appear on any help screen.
command sorted-field supported A start time (non-display) No M %MEM Yes N PID Yes P %CPU Yes T TIME+ Yes
Before using any of the following sort provisions, (We suggests that you temporarily turn on column highlighting using the `x' (CI. That will help ensure that the actual sort environment matches your intent.
The following (CIs will only be honored when the current sort field is visible . The sort field might not be visible because: 1) there is insufficient Screen Width 2) the `f' (CI turned it F
7 < : Move-Sort-Field-Left Moves the sort column to the left unless the current sort field is the first field being displayed.
7 > : Move-Sort-Field-Right Moves the sort column to the right unless the current sort field is the last field being displayed.
The following (CIs will always be honored whether or not the current sort field is visible.
7 f | F : Fields-Management These keys display a separate screen where you can change which field is used as the sort column, among other functions. This can be a convenient way to simply verify the current sort field, when running (We with column highlighting turned F.
7 R : Reverse/Normal-Sort-Field toggle Using this (CI you can alternate between high-to-low and low-to-high sorts.
(NT Field sorting uses internal values, not those in column display. Thus, the TTY and WCHAN fields will violate strict ASCII collating sequence.
4d. COLOR MappingWhen you issue the `Z' (CI, you will be presented with a separate screen. That screen can be used to change the colors in just the (CW or in all four windows before returning to the (We display.
The following (CIs are available.
4 upper case letters to select a target 8 numbers to select a color normal toggles available B :bold disable/enable b :running tasks "bold"/reverse z :color/mono other commands available a/w :apply, then go to next/prior <Enter> :apply and exit q :abandon current changes and exit
If you use `a' or `w' to cycle the targeted window, you will have applied the color scheme that was displayed when you left that window. You can, of course, easily return to any window and reapply different colors or turn colors F completely with the `z' toggle.
The Color Mapping screen can also be used to change the (CG in either (FM or (AM. Whatever was targeted when `q' or <Enter> was pressed will be made current as you return to the (We display.
5a. WINDOWS Overview
3 Field Groups/Windows : In (FM there is a single window represented by the entire screen. That single window can still be changed to display 1 of 4 different field groups ( (Xc `g' (CI, repeated below). Each of the 4 (FGs has a unique separately configurable (SA and its own configurable (TA .
In (AM, those 4 underlying (FGs can now be made visible simultaneously, or can be turned F individually at your command.
The (SA will always exist, even if it's only the message line. At any given time only one (SA can be displayed. However, depending on your commands, there could be from zero to four separate (TDs currently showing on the screen.
3 Current Window : The (CW is the window associated with the (SA and the window to which task related commands are always directed. Since in (AM you can toggle the (TD F, some commands might be restricted for the (CW.
A further complication arises when you have toggled the first (SA line F. With the loss of the window name (the `l' toggled line), you'll not easily know what window is the (CW.
5b. COMMANDS for Windows
7 - | _ : Show/Hide-Window(s) toggles The ` -' key turns the (CW's (TD O and F. When O, that (TA will show a minimum of the columns header you've established with the `f' (CI. It will also reflect any other (TA options/toggles you've applied yielding zero or more tasks.
The `_' key does the same for all (TDs. In other words, it switches between the currently visible (TD(s) and any (TD(s) you had toggled F. If all 4 (TDs are currently visible, this (CI will leave the (SA as the only display element.
7 * = | + : Equalize-(reinitialize)-Window(s) The `=' key forces the (CW's (TD to be visible. It also reverses any `i' (idle tasks), `n' (max tasks), `u/U' (user filter), o/O' (other filter) and 'L' (locate) commands that might be active. Also, if the window had been scrolled, it will be reset with this command. (XT 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.
The `+' key does the same for all windows. The four (TDs will reappear, evenly balanced. They will also have retained any customizations you had previously applied, except for the `i' (idle tasks), `n' (max tasks), `u/U' (user filter), `o/O' (other filter), `L' (locate) and scrolling (CIs.
7 * A : Alternate-Display-Mode toggle This command will switch between (FM and (AM.
The first time you issue this command, all four (TDs will be shown. Thereafter when you switch modes, you will see only the (TD(s) you've chosen to make visible.
7 * a | w : Next-Window-Forward/Backward This will change the (CW, which in turn changes the window to which commands are directed. These keys act in a circular fashion so you can reach any desired window using either key.
Assuming the window name is visible (you have not toggled `l' F), whenever the (CW name loses its emphasis/color, that's a reminder the (TD is F and many commands will be restricted.
7 * g : Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 designating the (FG which should be made the (CW.
In (FM, this command is necessary to alter the (CW. In (AM, it is simply a less convenient alternative to the `a' and `w' commands.
7 G : Change-Window/Field-Group-Name You will be prompted for a new name to be applied to the (CW. It does not require that the window name be visible (the `l' toggle to be O).
"*" 3 The (CIs shown with an (AK have use beyond (AM.
=, A, g are always available a, w act the same with color mapping and fields management
5c. SCROLLING a WindowTypically a (TW is a partial view into a systems's total tasks/threads which shows only some of the available fields/columns. With these (KSs, you can move that view vertically or horizontally to reveal any desired task or column.
4 Up , PgUp : Scroll-Tasks Move the view up toward the first task row, until the first task is displayed at the top of the (CW. The Up (KA moves a single line while PgUp scrolls the entire window.
4 Down , PgDn : Scroll-Tasks Move the view down toward the last task row, until the last task is the only task displayed at the top of the (CW. The Down (KA moves a single line while PgDn scrolls the entire window.
4 Left , Right : Scroll-Columns Move the view of displayable fields horizontally one column at a time.
(NT As a reminder, some fields/columns are not fixed-width but allocated all remaining screen width when visible. When scrolling right or left, that feature may produce some unexpected results initially.
Additionally, there are special provisions for any variable width field when positioned as the last displayed field. Once that field is reached via the right arrow key, and is thus the only column shown, you can continue scrolling horizontally within such a field. (XC `C' (CI below for additional information.
4 Home : Jump-to-Home-Position Reposition the display to the un-scrolled coordinates.
4 End : Jump-to-End-Position Reposition the display so that the rightmost column reflects the last displayable field and the bottom task row represents the last task.
(NT From this position it is still possible to scroll down and right using the (KAs. This is true until a single column and a single task is left as the only display element.
4 C : Show-scroll-coordinates toggle Toggle an informational message which is displayed whenever the message line is not otherwise being used. That message will take one of two forms depending on whether or not a variable width column has also been scrolled.
scrollcoordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields) scrollcoordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields) + nn
The coordinates shown as n / n are relative to the upper left corner of the (CW. The additional ` +nn 'represents the displacement into a variable width column when it has been scrolled horizontally. Such displacement occurs in normal 8 character tab stop amounts via the right and left arrow keys.
4 y= n/n (tasks) The first n represents the topmost visible task and is controlled by (KSs. The second n is updated automatically to reflect total tasks.
4 x= n/n (fields) The first n represents the leftmost displayed column and is controlled by (KSs. The second n is the total number of displayable fields and is established with the ` f '(CI.
The above (CIs are always available in (FM but never available in (AM if the (CW's (TD has been toggled F.
(NT When any form of filtering is active, you can expect some slight aberrations when scrolling since not all tasks will be visible. This is particularly apparent when using the Up/Down (KAs.
5d. SEARCHING in a WindowYou can use these (CIs to locate a task row containing a particular value.
4 L : Locate-a-string You will be prompted for the case-sensitive string to locate starting from the current window coordinates. There are no restrictions on search string content.
Searches are not limited to values from a single field or column. All of the values displayed in a task row are allowed in a search string. You may include spaces, numbers, symbols and even forest view artwork.
Keying <Enter> with no input will effectively disable the `&' key until a new search string is entered.
4 & : Locate-next Assuming a search string has been established, (We will attempt to locate the next occurrence.
When a match is found, the current window is repositioned vertically so the task row containing that string is first. The scroll coordinates message can provide confirmation of such vertical repositioning ( (Xc `C' (CI). Horizontal scrolling, however, is never altered via searching.
The availability of a matching string will be influenced by the following factors.
3 a. Which fields are displayable from the total available, (Xt 3b. MANAGING Fields.
3 b. Scrolling a window vertically and/or horizontally, (Xt 5c. SCROLLING a Window.
3 c. The state of the command/command-line toggle, (Xc `c' (CI.
3 d. The stability of the chosen sort column, for example PID is good but %CPU bad.
If a search fails, restoring the (CW home (unscrolled) position, scrolling horizontally, displaying command-lines or choosing a more stable sort field could yet produce a successful `&' search.
The above (CIs are always available in (FM but never available in (AM if the (CW's (TD has been toggled F.
(NT Whenever a Search is active in a window, (We will turn column highlighting F to prevent false matches on internal non-display escape sequences. Such highlighting will be restored when a window's search string is empty. (XC `x' (CI for additional information on sort column highlighting.
5e. FILTERING in a WindowYou can use this Other Filter feature to establish selection criteria which will then determine which tasks are shown in the (CW.
Establishing a filter requires: 1) a field name; 2) an operator; and 3) a selection value, as a minimum. This is the most complex of (We's user input requirements so, when you make a mistake, command recall will be your friend. Remember the Up/Down (KAs or their aliases when prompted for input.
3 1. field names are case sensitive and spelled as in the header
3 2. selection values need not comprise the full displayed field
3 3. a selection is either case insensitive or sensitive to case
3 4. the default is inclusion, prepending `!' denotes exclusions
3 5. multiple selection criteria can be applied to a (TW
3 6. inclusion and exclusion criteria can be used simultaneously
3 7. the 1 equality and 2 relational filters can be freely mixed
3 8. separate unique filters are maintained for each (TW
If a field is not turned on or is not currently in view, then your selection criteria will not affect the display. Later, should a filtered field become visible, the selection criteria will then be applied.
6 o : Other-Filter (lower case) You will be prompted to establish a filter that ignorescase when matching.
6 O : Other-Filter (upper case) You will be prompted to establish a casesensitive filter.
6 ^O : Show-Active-Filters (Ctrl key + `o') This can serve as a reminder of which filters are active in the (CW. A summary will be shown on the message line until you press the <Enter> key.
6 = : Reset-Filtering in current window This clears all of your selection criteria in the (CW. It also has additional impact so please (Xt 4a. GLOBAL Commands.
6 + : Reset-Filtering in all windows This clears the selection criteria in all windows, assuming you are in (AM. As with the `=' (CI, it too has additional consequences so you might wish to (Xt 5b. COMMANDS for Windows.
When prompted for selection criteria, the data you provide must take one of two forms. There are 3 required pieces of information, with a 4th as optional. These examples use spaces for clarity but your input generally would not.
#1 #2 #3 ( required ) Field -Name ? include -if -value ! Field -Name ? exclude -if -value #4 ( optional )
Items #1, #3 and #4 should be self -explanatory. Item #2 represents both a required delimiter and the operator which must be one of either equality (`=') or relation (`<' or `>').
The `=' equality operator requires only a partial match and that can reduce your `if -value' input requirements. The `>' or `<' relational operators always employ string comparisons, even with numeric fields. They are designed to work with a field's default justification and with homogeneous data. When some field's numeric amounts have been subjected to scaling while others have not, that data is no longer homogeneous.
If you establish a relational filter and you have changed the default Numeric or Character justification ,that filter is likely to fail. When a relational filter is applied to a memory field and you havenot changed the scaling ,it may produce misleading results. This happens, for example, because `100.0m' (MiB) would appear greater than `1.000g' (GiB) when compared as strings.
If your filtered results appear suspect, simply altering justification or scaling may yet achieve the desired objective. See the `j', `J' and `e' (CIs for additional information.
These GROUP filters could produce the exact same results or the second one might not display anything at all, just a blank (TW.
GROUP=root ( only the same results when ) GROUP=ROOT ( invoked via lower case `o' )
Either of these RES filters might yield inconsistent and/or misleading results, depending on the current memory scaling factor. Or both filters could produce the exact same results.
RES>9999 ( only the same results when ) !RES<10000 ( memory scaling is at `KiB' )
This nMin filter illustrates a problem unique to scalable fields. This particular field can display a maximum of 4 digits, beyond which values are automatically scaled to KiB or above. So while amounts greater than 9999 exist, they will appear as 2.6m, 197k, etc.
nMin>9999 ( always a blank (TW )
These examples illustrate how Other Filtering can be creatively applied to achieve almost any desired result. Single quotes are sometimes shown to delimit the spaces which are part of a filter or to represent a request for status (^O) accurately. But if you used them with if-values in real life, no matches would be found.
Assuming field nTH is displayed, the first filter will result in only multi-threaded processes being shown. It also reminds us that a trailing space is part of every displayed field. The second filter achieves the exact same results with less typing.
!nTH=` 1 ' ( ' for clarity only ) nTH>1 ( same with less i/p )
With Forest View mode active and the COMMAND column in view, this filter effectively collapses child processes so that just 3 levels are shown.
!COMMAND=` `- ' ( ' for clarity only )
The final two filters appear as in response to the status request key (^O). In reality, each filter would have required separate input. The PR example shows the two concurrent filters necessary to display tasks with priorities of 20 or more, since some might be negative. Then by exploiting trailing spaces, the nMin series of filters could achieve the failed `9999' objective discussed above.
`PR>20' + `!PR=-' ( 2 for right result ) `!nMin=0 ' + `!nMin=1 ' + `!nMin=2 ' + `!nMin=3 ' ...
(NT Whenever Other Filtering is active in a window, (We will turn column highlighting F to prevent false matches on internal non-display escape sequences. Such highlighting will be restored when a window is no longer subject to filtering. (XC `x' (CI for additional information on sort column highlighting.
6a. PERSONAL Configuration FileThis file is created or updated via the 'W' (CI.
The legacy version is written as `$HOME/.your -name -4 -(We' + `rc' with a leading period.
A newly created (CF is written as procps/your -name -4 -(We' + `rc' without a leading period. The procps directory will be subordinate to either $XDG_CONFIG_HOME when set as an absolute path or the $HOME/.config directory.
While not intended to be edited manually, here is the general layout:
global # line 1: the program name/alias notation " # line 2: id,altscr,irixps,delay,curwin per ea # line a: winname,fieldscur window # line b: winflags,sortindx,maxtasks,graph modes " # line c: summclr,msgsclr,headclr,taskclr global # line 15: additional miscellaneous settings " # any remaining lines are devoted to the " # generalized inspect provisions " # discussed below
If a valid absolute path to the rcfile cannot be established, customizations made to a running We will be impossible to preserve.
6b. ADDING INSPECT EntriesTo exploit the `Y' (CI, you must add entries at the end of the (We personal (CF. Such entries simply reflect a file to be read or command/pipeline to be executed whose results will then be displayed in a separate scrollable, searchable window.
If you don't know the location or name of your (We rcfile, use the `W' (CI to rewrite it and note those details.
Inspect entries can be added with a redirected echo or by editing the (CF. Redirecting an echo risks overwriting the rcfile should it replace (>) rather than append (>>) to that file. Conversely, when using an editor care must be taken not to corrupt existing lines, some of which will contain unprintable data or unusual characters.
Those Inspect entries beginning with a `#' character are ignored, regardless of content. Otherwise they consist of the following 3 elements, each of which must be separated by a tab character (thus 2 ` \ t' total):
.type: literal `file' or `pipe' .name: selection shown on the Inspect screen .fmts: string representing a path or command
The two types of Inspect entries are not interchangeable. Those designated ` file 'will be accessed using fopen and must reference a single file in the `.fmts' element. Entries specifying ` pipe 'will employ popen, their `.fmts' element could contain many pipelined commands and, none can be interactive.
If the file or pipeline represented in your `.fmts' deals with the specific PID input or accepted when prompted, then the format string must also contain the ` %d 'specifier, as these examples illustrate.
.fmts= /proc/ %d /numa_maps .fmts= lsof -P -p %d
For ` pipe 'type entries only, you may also wish to redirect stderr to stdout for a more comprehensive result. Thus the format string becomes:
.fmts= pmap -x %d 2>&1
Here are examples of both types of Inspect entries as they might appear in the rcfile. The first entry will be ignored due to the initial `#' character. For clarity, the pseudo tab depictions (^I) are surrounded by an extra space but the actual tabs would not be.
# pipe ^I Sockets ^I lsof -n -P -i 2>&1 pipe ^I Open Files ^I lsof -P -p %d 2>&1 file ^I NUMA Info ^I /proc/%d/numa_maps pipe ^I Log ^I tail -n100 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr
Except for the commented entry above, these next examples show what could be echoed to achieve similar results, assuming the rcfile name was `.toprc'. However, due to the embedded tab characters, each of these lines should be preceded by ` /bin/echo-e ',not just a simple an `echo', to enable backslash interpretation regardless of which shell you use.
"pipe \ tOpen Files \ tlsof -P -p %d 2>&1" >> ~/.toprc "file \ tNUMA Info \ t/proc/%d/numa_maps" >> ~/.toprc "pipe \ tLog \ ttail -n200 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr" >> ~/.toprc
Caution : If any inspect entry you create produces output with unprintable characters they will be displayed in either the ^C notation or hexadecimal <FF> form, depending on their value. This applies to tab characters as well, which will show as `^I'. If you want a truer representation, any embedded tabs should be expanded.
# next would have contained ` \ t' ... # file ^I <your_name> ^I /proc/%d/status # but this will eliminate embedded ` \ t' ... pipe ^I <your_name> ^I cat /proc/%d/status | expand -
The above example takes what could have been a `file' entry but employs a `pipe' instead so as to expand the embedded tabs.
(NT While ` pipe 'type entries have been discussed in terms of pipelines and commands, there is nothing to prevent you from including shell scripts as well. Perhaps even newly created scripts designed specifically for the `Y' (CI.
Lastly, as the number of your Inspect entries grows over time, the `Options:' row will be truncated when screen width is exceeded. That does not affect operation other than to make some selections invisible.
However, if some choices are lost to truncation but you want to see more options, there is an easy solution hinted at below.
Inspection Pause at pid ... Use: left/right then <Enter> ... Options: help 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ...
The entries in the (We rcfile would have a number for the `.name' element and the `help' entry would identify a shell script you've written explaining what those numbered selections actually mean. In that way, many more choices can be made visible.
6c. SYSTEM Configuration FileThis (CF represents defaults for users who have not saved their own (CF. The format mirrors exactly the personal (CF and can also include `inspect' entries as explained above.
Creating it is a simple process.
1. Configure (We appropriately for your installation and preserve that configuration with the `W' (CI.
2. Add and test any desired `inspect' entries.
3. Copy that (CF to the /etc/ directory as ` topdefaultrc '.
6d. SYSTEM Restrictions FileThe presence of this file will influence which version of the help screen is shown to an ordinary user.
More importantly, it will limit what ordinary users are allowed to do when (We is running. They will not be able to issue the following commands.
k Kill a task r Renice a task d or s Change delay/sleep interval
This (CF is not created by (We. Rather, it is created manually and placed it in the /etc/ directory as ` toprc '.
It should have exactly two lines, as shown in this example:
s # line 1: secure mode switch 5.0 # line 2: delay interval in seconds
Many of these tricks work best when you give (We a scheduling boost. So plan on starting him with a nice value of -10, assuming you've got the authority.
7a. Kernel MagicFor these stupid tricks, (We needs (FM.
3 The user interface, through prompts and help, intentionally implies that the delay interval is limited to tenths of a second. However, you're free to set any desired delay. If you want to see Linux at his scheduling best, try a delay of .09 seconds or less.
For this experiment, under x-windows open an xterm and maximize it. Then do the following:
. provide a scheduling boost and tiny delay via: nice -n -10 (We -d.09 . keep sorted column highlighting F so as to minimize path length . turn O reverse row highlighting for emphasis . try various sort columns (TIME/MEM work well), and normal or reverse sorts to bring the most active processes into view
What you'll see is a very busy Linux doing what he's always done for you, but there was no program available to illustrate this.
3 Under an xterm using `white-on-black' colors, on (We's Color Mapping screen set the task color to black and be sure that task highlighting is set to bold, not reverse. Then set the delay interval to around .3 seconds.
After bringing the most active processes into view, what you'll see are the ghostly images of just the currently running tasks.
3 Delete the existing rcfile, or create a new symlink. Start this new version then type `T' (a secret key, (Xt 4c. Task Area Commands, SORTING) followed by `W' and `q'. Finally, restart the program with -d0 (zero delay).
Your display will be refreshed at three times the rate of the former (We, a 300% speed advantage. As (We climbs the TIME ladder, be as patient as you can while speculating on whether or not (We will ever reach the (We.
7b. Bouncing WindowsFor these stupid tricks, (We needs (AM.
3 With 3 or 4 (TDs visible, pick any window other than the last and turn idle processes F using the `i' (CT. Depending on where you applied `i', sometimes several (TDs are bouncing and sometimes it's like an accordion, as (We tries his best to allocate space.
3 Set each window's summary lines differently: one with no memory (`m'); another with no states (`t'); maybe one with nothing at all, just the message line. Then hold down `a' or `w' and watch a variation on bouncing windows (Em hopping windows.
3 Display all 4 windows and for each, in turn, set idle processes to F using the `i' (CT. You've just entered the "extreme bounce" zone.
7c. The Big Bird WindowThis stupid trick also requires (AM.
3 Display all 4 windows and make sure that 1:Def is the (CW. Then, keep increasing window size with the `n' (CI until all the other (TDs are "pushed out of the nest".
When they've all been displaced, toggle between all visible/invisible windows using the `_' (CT. Then ponder this:
is (We fibbing or telling honestly your imposed truth?
7d. The Ol' SwitcherooThis stupid trick works best without (AM, since justification is active on a per window basis.
3 Start (We and make COMMAND the last (rightmost) column displayed. If necessary, use the `c' (CT to display command lines and ensure that forest view mode is active with the `V' (CT.
Then use the up/down arrow keys to position the display so that some truncated command lines are shown (`+' in last position). You may have to resize your xterm to produce truncation.
Lastly, use the `j' (CT to make the COMMAND column right justified.
Now use the right arrow key to reach the COMMAND column. Continuing with the right arrow key, watch closely the direction of travel for the command lines being shown.
some lines travel left, while others travel right
eventually all lines will Switcheroo, and move right
Please send bug reports to firstname.lastname@example.org .
free(1), ps(1), uptime(1), atop(1), slabtop(1), vmstat(8), w(1)