Analyze and debug system manager


List time of each unit to start up

$ systemd-analyze blame

Print a tree of the time critical chain of units

$ systemd-analyze critical-chain


' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] [time] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] blame ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] critical -chain [ UNIT ...] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log -level [ LEVEL ] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] log -target [ TARGET ] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] service -watchdogs [ BOOL ] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dump ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] plot [>file .svg] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] dot [ PATTERN ...][>file .dot] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] unit -paths ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] syscall -filter [ SET ...] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] calendar SPECS ... ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] timespan SPAN ... ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] cat -config NAME | PATH ... ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] verify [ FILE ...] ' systemd-analyze 'u systemd-analyze [OPTIONS...] security UNIT ...


systemd-analyze may be used to determine system boot -up performance statistics and retrieve other state and tracing information from the system and service manager, and to verify the correctness of unit files . It is also used to access special functions useful for advanced system manager debugging .

If no command is passed, systemd-analyze time is implied .

"systemd -analyze time"

This command prints the time spent in the kernel before userspace has been reached, the time spent in the initial RAM disk (initrd) before normal system userspace has been reached, and the time normal system userspace took to initialize . Note that these measurements simply measure the time passed up to the point where all system services have been spawned, but not necessarily until they fully finished initialization or the disk is idle .

Example1. Show how long the boot took
.RS 4
# in a container $ systemd -analyze time Startup finished in 296ms (userspace) multi -user .target reached after 275ms in userspace
# on a real machine $ systemd -analyze time Startup finished in 2 .584s (kernel) + 19 .176s (initrd) + 47 .847s (userspace) = 1min 9 .608s multi -user .target reached after 47 .820s in userspace .RE

"systemd -analyze blame"

This command prints a list of all running units, ordered by the time they took to initialize . This information may be used to optimize boot -up times . Note that the output might be misleading as the initialization of one service might be slow simply because it waits for the initialization of another service to complete . Also note: systemd-analyze blame doesn (Aqt display results for services with Type=simple ,because systemd considers such services to be started immediately, hence no measurement of the initialization delays can be done . Also note that this command only shows the time units took for starting up, it does not show how long unit jobs spent in the execution queue . In particular it shows the time units spent in activating state, which is not defined for units such as device units that transition directly from inactive to active. This command hence gives an impression of the performance of program code, but cannot accurately reflect latency introduced by waiting for hardware and similar events .

Example2. Show which units took the most time during boot
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze blame 32 .875s pmlogger .service 20 .905s systemd -networkd -wait -online .service 13 .299s dev -vda1 .device . . . 23ms sysroot .mount 11ms initrd -udevadm -cleanup -db .service 3ms sys -kernel -config .mount

"systemd -analyze critical -chain [ UNIT . . .]"

This command prints a tree of the time -critical chain of units (for each of the specified UNIT sor for the default target otherwise) . The time after the unit is active or started is printed after the "@" character . The time the unit takes to start is printed after the "+" character . Note that the output might be misleading as the initialization of services might depend on socket activation and because of the parallel execution of units . Also, similar to the blame command, this only takes into account the time units spent in activating state, and hence does not cover units that never went through an activating state (such as device units that transition directly from inactive to "active") . Moreover it does not show information on jobs (and in particular not jobs that timed out) .

Example3. systemd -analyze time
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze critical -chain multi -user .target @47 .820s └─pmie .service @35 .968s +548ms └─pmcd .service @33 .715s +2 .247s └─network -online .target @33 .712s └─systemd -networkd -wait -online .service @12 .804s +20 .905s └─systemd -networkd .service @11 .109s +1 .690s └─systemd -udevd .service @9 .201s +1 .904s └─systemd -tmpfiles -setup -dev .service @7 .306s +1 .776s └─kmod -static -nodes .service @6 .976s +177ms └─systemd -journald .socket └─system .slice └─ -.slice .RE

"systemd -analyze log -level [ LEVEL ]"

systemd-analyze log -level prints the current log level of the systemd daemon . If an optional argument LEVEL is provided, then the command changes the current log level of the systemd daemon to LEVEL (accepts the same values as --log -level= described in systemd (1)).

"systemd -analyze log -target [ TARGET ]"

systemd-analyze log -target prints the current log target of the systemd daemon . If an optional argument TARGET is provided, then the command changes the current log target of the systemd daemon to TARGET (accepts the same values as --log -target= ,described in systemd (1)).

"systemd -analyze service -watchdogs [yes|no]"

systemd-analyze service -watchdogs prints the current state of service runtime watchdogs of the systemd daemon . If an optional boolean argument is provided, then globally enables or disables the service runtime watchdogs ( WatchdogSec= )and emergency actions (e .g . OnFailure= or StartLimitAction= );see systemd.service (5). The hardware watchdog is not affected by this setting .

"systemd -analyze dump"

This command outputs a (usually very long) human -readable serialization of the complete server state . Its format is subject to change without notice and should not be parsed by applications .

Example4. Show the internal state of user manager
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze --user dump Timestamp userspace: Thu 2019 -03 -14 23:28:07 CET Timestamp finish: Thu 2019 -03 -14 23:28:07 CET Timestamp generators -start: Thu 2019 -03 -14 23:28:07 CET Timestamp generators -finish: Thu 2019 -03 -14 23:28:07 CET Timestamp units -load -start: Thu 2019 -03 -14 23:28:07 CET Timestamp units -load -finish: Thu 2019 -03 -14 23:28:07 CET -> Unit proc -timer_list .mount: Description: /proc/timer_list . . . -> Unit default .target: Description: Main user target . . . .RE

"systemd -analyze plot"

This command prints an SVG graphic detailing which system services have been started at what time, highlighting the time they spent on initialization .

Example5. Plot a bootchart
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze plot >bootup .svg $ eog bootup .svg& .RE

"systemd -analyze dot [ pattern . . .]"

This command generates textual dependency graph description in dot format for further processing with the GraphViz dot (1) tool . Use a command line like systemd-analyze dot | dot -Tsvg >systemd .svg to generate a graphical dependency tree . Unless --order or --require is passed, the generated graph will show both ordering and requirement dependencies . Optional pattern globbing style specifications (e .g . * .target) may be given at the end . A unit dependency is included in the graph if any of these patterns match either the origin or destination node .

Example6. Plot all dependencies of any unit whose name starts with "avahi -daemon"
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze dot (Aqavahi -daemon .* (Aq | dot -Tsvg >avahi .svg $ eog avahi .svg .RE

Example7. Plot the dependencies between all known target units
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze dot --to -pattern= (Aq* .target (Aq --from -pattern= (Aq* .target (Aq \ | dot -Tsvg >targets .svg $ eog targets .svg .RE

"systemd -analyze unit -paths"

This command outputs a list of all directories from which unit files, .d overrides, and .wants, .requires symlinks may be loaded . Combine with --user to retrieve the list for the user manager instance, and --global for the global configuration of user manager instances .

Example8. Show all paths for generated units
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze unit -paths | grep (Aq^/run (Aq /run/systemd/system .control /run/systemd/transient /run/systemd/generator .early /run/systemd/system /run/systemd/system .attached /run/systemd/generator /run/systemd/generator .late .RE

Note that this verb prints the list that is compiled into systemd-analyze itself, and does not communicate with the running manager . Use
.RS 4
systemctl [ --user] [ --global] show -p UnitPath --value .RE
to retrieve the actual list that the manager uses, with any empty directories omitted .

"systemd -analyze syscall -filter [ SET . . .]"

This command will list system calls contained in the specified system call set SET ,or all known sets if no sets are specified . Argument SET must include the @ prefix .

"systemd -analyze calendar EXPRESSION . . ."

This command will parse and normalize repetitive calendar time events, and will calculate when they elapse next . This takes the same input as the OnCalendar= setting in systemd.timer (5),following the syntax described in systemd.time (7). By default, only the next time the calendar expression will elapse is shown; use --iterations= to show the specified number of next times the expression elapses .

Example9. Show leap days in the near future
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze calendar --iterations=5 (Aq* -2 -29 0:0:0 (Aq Original form: * -2 -29 0:0:0 Normalized form: * -02 -29 00:00:00 Next elapse: Sat 2020 -02 -29 00:00:00 UTC From now: 11 months 15 days left Iter . #2: Thu 2024 -02 -29 00:00:00 UTC From now: 4 years 11 months left Iter . #3: Tue 2028 -02 -29 00:00:00 UTC From now: 8 years 11 months left Iter . #4: Sun 2032 -02 -29 00:00:00 UTC From now: 12 years 11 months left Iter . #5: Fri 2036 -02 -29 00:00:00 UTC From now: 16 years 11 months left .RE

"systemd -analyze timespan EXPRESSION . . ."

This command parses a time span and outputs the normalized form and the equivalent value in microseconds . The time span should adhere to the same syntax documented in systemd.time (7). Values without associated magnitudes are parsed as seconds .

Example10. Show parsing of timespans
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze timespan 1s 300s (Aq1year 0 .000001s (Aq Original: 1s μs: 1000000 Human: 1s
Original: 300s μs: 300000000 Human: 5min
Original: 1year 0 .000001s μs: 31557600000001 Human: 1y 1us .RE

"systemd -analyze cat -config NAME | PATH . . ."

This command is similar to systemctlcat ,but operates on config files . It will copy the contents of a config file and any drop -ins to standard output, using the usual systemd set of directories and rules for precedence . Each argument must be either an absolute path including the prefix (such as /etc/systemd/logind .conf or /usr/lib/systemd/logind .conf), or a name relative to the prefix (such as systemd/logind .conf) .

Example11. Showing logind configuration
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze cat -config systemd/logind .conf # /etc/systemd/logind .conf . . . [Login] NAutoVTs=8 . . .
# /usr/lib/systemd/logind .conf .d/20 -test .conf . . . some override from another package
# /etc/systemd/logind .conf .d/50 -override .conf . . . some administrator override

"systemd -analyze verify FILE . . ."

This command will load unit files and print warnings if any errors are detected . Files specified on the command line will be loaded, but also any other units referenced by them . The full unit search path is formed by combining the directories for all command line arguments, and the usual unit load paths (variable $SYSTEMD_UNIT_PATH is supported, and may be used to replace or augment the compiled in set of unit load paths; see systemd.unit (5)). All units files present in the directories containing the command line arguments will be used in preference to the other paths .

The following errors are currently detected:
'-04' '+03' .sp -1

2.3 unknown sections and directives,
'-04' '+03' .sp -1

2.3 missing dependencies which are required to start the given unit,
'-04' '+03' .sp -1

2.3 man pages listed in Documentation= which are not found in the system,
'-04' '+03' .sp -1

2.3 commands listed in ExecStart= and similar which are not found in the system or not executable .

Example12. Misspelt directives
.RS 4
$ cat ./user .slice [Unit] WhatIsThis=11 Documentation=man:nosuchfile(1) Requires=different .service
[Service] Description=x
$ systemd -analyze verify ./user .slice [ ./user .slice:9] Unknown lvalue (AqWhatIsThis (Aq in section (AqUnit (Aq [ ./user .slice:13] Unknown section (AqService (Aq . Ignoring . Error: org .freedesktop .systemd1 .LoadFailed: Unit different .service failed to load: No such file or directory . Failed to create user .slice/start: Invalid argument user .slice: man nosuchfile(1) command failed with code 16

Example13. Missing service units
.RS 4
$ tail ./a .socket ./b .socket ==> ./a .socket <== [Socket] ListenStream=100
==> ./b .socket <== [Socket] ListenStream=100 Accept=yes
$ systemd -analyze verify ./a .socket ./b .socket Service a .service not loaded, a .socket cannot be started . Service b@0 .service not loaded, b .socket cannot be started .

"systemd -analyze security [ UNIT . . .]"

This command analyzes the security and sandboxing settings of one or more specified service units . If at least one unit name is specified the security settings of the specified service units are inspected and a detailed analysis is shown . If no unit name is specified, all currently loaded, long -running service units are inspected and a terse table with results shown . The command checks for various security -related service settings, assigning each a numeric "exposure level" value, depending on how important a setting is . It then calculates an overall exposure level for the whole unit, which is an estimation in the range 0 .0 ...10 .0 indicating how exposed a service is security -wise . High exposure levels indicate very little applied sandboxing . Low exposure levels indicate tight sandboxing and strongest security restrictions . Note that this only analyzes the per -service security features systemd itself implements . This means that any additional security mechanisms applied by the service code itself are not accounted for . The exposure level determined this way should not be misunderstood: a high exposure level neither means that there is no effective sandboxing applied by the service code itself, nor that the service is actually vulnerable to remote or local attacks . High exposure levels do indicate however that most likely the service might benefit from additional settings applied to them .

Please note that many of the security and sandboxing settings individually can be circumvented unless combined with others . For example, if a service retains the privilege to establish or undo mount points many of the sandboxing options can be undone by the service code itself . Due to that is essential that each service uses the most comprehensive and strict sandboxing and security settings possible . The tool will take into account some of these combinations and relationships between the settings, but not all . Also note that the security and sandboxing settings analyzed here only apply to the operations executed by the service code itself . If a service has access to an IPC system (such as D -Bus) it might request operations from other services that are not subject to the same restrictions . Any comprehensive security and sandboxing analysis is hence incomplete if the IPC access policy is not validated too .

Example14. Analyze systemd -logind .service
.RS 4
$ systemd -analyze security --no -pager systemd -logind .service NAME DESCRIPTION EXPOSURE ✗ PrivateNetwork= Service has access to the host (Aqs network 0 .5 ✗ User=/DynamicUser= Service runs as root user 0 .4 ✗ DeviceAllow= Service has no device ACL 0 .2 ✓ IPAddressDeny= Service blocks all IP address ranges . . . → Overall exposure level for systemd -logind .service: 4 .1 OK 🙂 .RE


The following options are understood:

--system Operates on the system systemd instance . This is the implied default .

--user Operates on the user systemd instance .

--global Operates on the system -wide configuration for user systemd instance .

--order , --require When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), selects which dependencies are shown in the dependency graph . If --order is passed, only dependencies of type After= or Before= are shown . If --require is passed, only dependencies of type Requires= , Requisite= , Wants= and Conflicts= are shown . If neither is passed, this shows dependencies of all these types .

--from -pattern= , --to -pattern= When used in conjunction with the dot command (see above), this selects which relationships are shown in the dependency graph . Both options require a glob (7) pattern as an argument, which will be matched against the left -hand and the right -hand, respectively, nodes of a relationship .

Each of these can be used more than once, in which case the unit name must match one of the values . When tests for both sides of the relation are present, a relation must pass both tests to be shown . When patterns are also specified as positional arguments, they must match at least one side of the relation . In other words, patterns specified with those two options will trim the list of edges matched by the positional arguments, if any are given, and fully determine the list of edges shown otherwise .

--fuzz= timespan When used in conjunction with the critical-chain command (see above), also show units, which finished timespan earlier, than the latest unit in the same level . The unit of timespan is seconds unless specified with a different unit, e .g . "50ms" .

--man=no Do not invoke man to verify the existence of man pages listed in Documentation= .

--generators Invoke unit generators, see systemd.generator (7). Some generators require root privileges . Under a normal user, running with generators enabled will generally result in some warnings .

--root= PATH With cat-files ,show config files underneath the specified root path PATH .

--iterations= NUMBER When used with the calendar command, show the specified number of iterations the specified calendar expression will elapse next . Defaults to 1 .

-H , --host= Execute the operation remotely . Specify a hostname, or a username and hostname separated by "@", to connect to . The hostname may optionally be suffixed by a port ssh is listening on, separated by ":", and then a container name, separated by "/", which connects directly to a specific container on the specified host . This will use SSH to talk to the remote machine manager instance . Container names may be enumerated with machinectl-H HOST . Put IPv6 addresses in brackets .

-M , --machine= Execute operation on a local container . Specify a container name to connect to .

-h , --help Print a short help text and exit .

--version Print a short version string and exit .

--no -pager Do not pipe output into a pager .


On success, 0 is returned, a non -zero failure code otherwise .


$SYSTEMD_PAGER Pager to use when --no -pager is not given; overrides $PAGER . If neither $SYSTEMD_PAGER nor $PAGER are set, a set of well -known pager implementations are tried in turn, including less (1) and more (1),until one is found . If no pager implementation is discovered no pager is invoked . Setting this environment variable to an empty string or the value cat is equivalent to passing --no -pager .

$SYSTEMD_LESS Override the options passed to less (by default "FRSXMK") .

If the value of $SYSTEMD_LESS does not include "K", and the pager that is invoked is less , Ctrl+C will be ignored by the executable . This allows less to handle Ctrl+C itself .

$SYSTEMD_LESSCHARSET Override the charset passed to less (by default "utf -8", if the invoking terminal is determined to be UTF -8 compatible) .


systemd(1), systemctl(1)

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