Backend for fast Git data importers
frontend | gitfast -import [<options>]
--force Force updating modified existing branches, even if doing so would cause commits to be lost (as the new commit does not contain the old commit) .
--quiet Disable the output shown by --stats, making fast -import usually be silent when it is successful . However, if the import stream has directives intended to show user output (e .g . progress directives), the corresponding messages will still be shown .
--stats Display some basic statistics about the objects fast -import has created, the packfiles they were stored into, and the memory used by fast -import during this run . Showing this output is currently the default, but can be disabled with --quiet .
Options for Frontends
--cat -blob -fd=<fd> Write responses to get-mark , cat-blob ,and ls queries to the file descriptor <fd> instead of stdout . Allows progress output intended for the end -user to be separated from other output .
--date -format=<fmt> Specify the type of dates the frontend will supply to fast -import within author , committer and tagger commands . See Formats below for details about which formats are supported, and their syntax .
--done Terminate with error if there is no done command at the end of the stream . This option might be useful for detecting errors that cause the frontend to terminate before it has started to write a stream .
Locations of Marks Files
--export -marks=<file> Dumps the internal marks table to <file> when complete . Marks are written one per line as :markidSHA -1 . Frontends can use this file to validate imports after they have been completed, or to save the marks table across incremental runs . As <file> is only opened and truncated at checkpoint (or completion) the same path can also be safely given to --import -marks .
--import -marks=<file> Before processing any input, load the marks specified in <file> . The input file must exist, must be readable, and must use the same format as produced by --export -marks . Multiple options may be supplied to import more than one set of marks . If a mark is defined to different values, the last file wins .
--import -marks -if -exists=<file> Like --import -marks but instead of erroring out, silently skips the file if it does not exist .
--[no -]relative -marks After specifying --relative -marks the paths specified with --import -marks= and --export -marks= are relative to an internal directory in the current repository . In git -fast -import this means that the paths are relative to the .git/info/fast -import directory . However, other importers may use a different location . Relative and non -relative marks may be combined by interweaving --(no -) -relative -marks with the --(import|export) -marks= options .
Performance and Compression Tuning
--active -branches=<n> Maximum number of branches to maintain active at once . See Utilization below for details . Default is 5 .
--big -file -threshold=<n> Maximum size of a blob that fast -import will attempt to create a delta for, expressed in bytes . The default is 512m (512 MiB) . Some importers may wish to lower this on systems with constrained memory .
--depth=<n> Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification . Default is 50 .
--export -pack -edges=<file> After creating a packfile, print a line of data to <file> listing the filename of the packfile and the last commit on each branch that was written to that packfile . This information may be useful after importing projects whose total object set exceeds the 4 GiB packfile limit, as these commits can be used as edge points during calls to gitpack -objects .
--max -pack -size=<n> Maximum size of each output packfile . The default is unlimited .
fastimport .unpackLimit See git-config (1)
Stream CommentsTo aid in debugging frontends fast -import ignores any line that begins with # (ASCII pound/hash) up to and including the line ending LF . A comment line may contain any sequence of bytes that does not contain an LF and therefore may be used to include any detailed debugging information that might be specific to the frontend and useful when inspecting a fast -import data stream .
Date FormatsThe following date formats are supported . A frontend should select the format it will use for this import by passing the format name in the --date -format=<fmt> command -line option .
raw This is the Git native format and is <time>SP <offutc> . It is also fast -import default format, if --date -format was not specified . The time of the event is specified by <time> as the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch (midnight, Jan 1, 1970, UTC) and is written as an ASCII decimal integer . The local offset is specified by <offutc> as a positive or negative offset from UTC . For example EST (which is 5 hours behind UTC) would be expressed in <tz> by -0500 while UTC is . The local offset does not affect <time> ;it is used only as an advisement to help formatting routines display the timestamp . If the local offset is not available in the source material, use or the most common local offset . For example many organizations have a CVS repository which has only ever been accessed by users who are located in the same location and time zone . In this case a reasonable offset from UTC could be assumed . Unlike the rfc2822 format, this format is very strict . Any variation in formatting will cause fast -import to reject the value .
rfc2822 This is the standard email format as described by RFC 2822 . An example value is Feb 6 11:22:18 2007 -0500 . The Git parser is accurate, but a little on the lenient side . It is the same parser used by gitam when applying patches received from email . Some malformed strings may be accepted as valid dates . In some of these cases Git will still be able to obtain the correct date from the malformed string . There are also some types of malformed strings which Git will parse wrong, and yet consider valid . Seriously malformed strings will be rejected . Unlike the raw format above, the time zone/UTC offset information contained in an RFC 2822 date string is used to adjust the date value to UTC prior to storage . Therefore it is important that this information be as accurate as possible . If the source material uses RFC 2822 style dates, the frontend should let fast -import handle the parsing and conversion (rather than attempting to do it itself) as the Git parser has been well tested in the wild . Frontends should prefer the raw format if the source material already uses UNIX -epoch format, can be coaxed to give dates in that format, or its format is easily convertible to it, as there is no ambiguity in parsing .
now Always use the current time and time zone . The literal now must always be supplied for <when> . This is a toy format . The current time and time zone of this system is always copied into the identity string at the time it is being created by fast -import . There is no way to specify a different time or time zone . This particular format is supplied as it short to implement and may be useful to a process that wants to create a new commit right now, without needing to use a working directory or gitupdate -index . If separate author and committer commands are used in a commit the timestamps may not match, as the system clock will be polled twice (once for each command) . The only way to ensure that both author and committer identity information has the same timestamp is to omit author (thus copying from committer )or to use a date format other than now .
Commandsfast -import accepts several commands to update the current repository and control the current import process . More detailed discussion (with examples) of each command follows later .
commit Creates a new branch or updates an existing branch by creating a new commit and updating the branch to point at the newly created commit .
tag Creates an annotated tag object from an existing commit or branch . Lightweight tags are not supported by this command, as they are not recommended for recording meaningful points in time .
reset Reset an existing branch (or a new branch) to a specific revision . This command must be used to change a branch to a specific revision without making a commit on it .
blob Convert raw file data into a blob, for future use in a commit command . This command is optional and is not needed to perform an import .
checkpoint Forces fast -import to close the current packfile, generate its unique SHA -1 checksum and index, and start a new packfile . This command is optional and is not needed to perform an import .
progress Causes fast -import to echo the entire line to its own standard output . This command is optional and is not needed to perform an import .
done Marks the end of the stream . This command is optional unless the done feature was requested using the --done command -line option or featuredone command .
get-mark Causes fast -import to print the SHA -1 corresponding to a mark to the file descriptor set with --cat -blob -fd ,or stdout if unspecified .
cat-blob Causes fast -import to print a blob in cat-file --batch format to the file descriptor set with --cat -blob -fd or stdout if unspecified .
ls Causes fast -import to print a line describing a directory entry in ls-tree format to the file descriptor set with --cat -blob -fd or stdout if unspecified .
feature Enable the specified feature . This requires that fast -import supports the specified feature, and aborts if it does not .
option Specify any of the options listed under OPTIONS that do not change stream semantic to suit the frontend needs . This command is optional and is not needed to perform an import .
" commit "Create or update a branch with a new commit, recording one logical change to the project . .RS 4
(Aqcommit (Aq SP <ref> LF mark? original -oid? ( (Aqauthor (Aq (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)? (Aqcommitter (Aq (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF ( (Aqencoding (Aq SP <encoding>)? data ( (Aqfrom (Aq SP <commit -ish> LF)? ( (Aqmerge (Aq SP <commit -ish> LF)? (filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall | notemodify)* LF? .RE where <ref> is the name of the branch to make the commit on . Typically branch names are prefixed with refs/heads/ in Git, so importing the CVS branch symbol RELENG-1_0 would use refs/heads/RELENG-1_0 for the value of <ref> . The value of <ref> must be a valid refname in Git . As LF is not valid in a Git refname, no quoting or escaping syntax is supported here . A mark command may optionally appear, requesting fast -import to save a reference to the newly created commit for future use by the frontend (see below for format) . It is very common for frontends to mark every commit they create, thereby allowing future branch creation from any imported commit . The data command following committer must supply the commit message (see below for data command syntax) . To import an empty commit message use a 0 length data . Commit messages are free -form and are not interpreted by Git . Currently they must be encoded in UTF -8, as fast -import does not permit other encodings to be specified . Zero or more filemodify , filedelete , filecopy , filerename , filedeleteall and notemodify commands may be included to update the contents of the branch prior to creating the commit . These commands may be supplied in any order . However it is recommended that a filedeleteall command precede all filemodify , filecopy , filerename and notemodify commands in the same commit, as filedeleteall wipes the branch clean (see below) . The LF after the command is optional (it used to be required) . Note that for reasons of backward compatibility, if the commit ends with a data command (i .e . it has no from , merge , filemodify , filedelete , filecopy , filerename , filedeleteall or notemodify commands) then two LF commands may appear at the end of the command instead of just one . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 author An author command may optionally appear, if the author information might differ from the committer information . If author is omitted then fast -import will automatically use the committer information for the author portion of the commit . See below for a description of the fields in author ,as they are identical to committer . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 committer The committer command indicates who made this commit, and when they made it . Here <name> is the person display name (for example M Itter and <email> is the person email address ( .com . LT and GT are the literal less -than ( \ x3c) and greater -than ( \ x3e) symbols . These are required to delimit the email address from the other fields in the line . Note that <name> and <email> are free -form and may contain any sequence of bytes, except LT , GT and LF . <name> is typically UTF -8 encoded . The time of the change is specified by <when> using the date format that was selected by the --date -format=<fmt> command -line option . See Formats above for the set of supported formats, and their syntax . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 encoding The optional encoding command indicates the encoding of the commit message . Most commits are UTF -8 and the encoding is omitted, but this allows importing commit messages into git without first reencoding them . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 from The from command is used to specify the commit to initialize this branch from . This revision will be the first ancestor of the new commit . The state of the tree built at this commit will begin with the state at the from commit, and be altered by the content modifications in this commit . Omitting the from command in the first commit of a new branch will cause fast -import to create that commit with no ancestor . This tends to be desired only for the initial commit of a project . If the frontend creates all files from scratch when making a new branch, a merge command may be used instead of from to start the commit with an empty tree . Omitting the from command on existing branches is usually desired, as the current commit on that branch is automatically assumed to be the first ancestor of the new commit . As LF is not valid in a Git refname or SHA -1 expression, no quoting or escaping syntax is supported within <commit-ish> . Here <commit-ish> is any of the following: '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 The name of an existing branch already in fast -import internal branch table . If fast -import doesn know the name, it treated as a SHA -1 expression . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 A mark reference, :<idnum> ,where <idnum> is the mark number . The reason fast -import uses : to denote a mark reference is this character is not legal in a Git branch name . The leading : makes it easy to distinguish between the mark 42 ( :42 )and the branch 42 ( 42 or refs/heads/42 ),or an abbreviated SHA -1 which happened to consist only of base -10 digits . Marks must be declared (via mark )before they can be used . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 A complete 40 byte or abbreviated commit SHA -1 in hex . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 Any valid Git SHA -1 expression that resolves to a commit . See REVISIONS in gitrevisions (7) for details . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 The special null SHA -1 (40 zeros) specifies that the branch is to be removed . The special case of restarting an incremental import from the current branch value should be written as: .RS 4
from refs/heads/branch^0 .RE The ^0 suffix is necessary as fast -import does not permit a branch to start from itself, and the branch is created in memory before the from command is even read from the input . Adding ^0 will force fast -import to resolve the commit through Git revision parsing library, rather than its internal branch table, thereby loading in the existing value of the branch . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 merge Includes one additional ancestor commit . The additional ancestry link does not change the way the tree state is built at this commit . If the from command is omitted when creating a new branch, the first merge commit will be the first ancestor of the current commit, and the branch will start out with no files . An unlimited number of merge commands per commit are permitted by fast -import, thereby establishing an n -way merge . Here <commit-ish> is any of the commit specification expressions also accepted by from (see above) . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 filemodify Included in a commit command to add a new file or change the content of an existing file . This command has two different means of specifying the content of the file .
External data format The data content for the file was already supplied by a prior blob command . The frontend just needs to connect it . .RS 4
(AqM (Aq SP <mode> SP <dataref> SP <path> LF .RE Here usually <dataref> must be either a mark reference ( :<idnum> )set by a prior blob command, or a full 40 -byte SHA -1 of an existing Git blob object . If <mode> is 040000` then <dataref> must be the full 40 -byte SHA -1 of an existing Git tree object or a mark reference set with --import -marks .
Inline data format The data content for the file has not been supplied yet . The frontend wants to supply it as part of this modify command . .RS 4
(AqM (Aq SP <mode> SP (Aqinline (Aq SP <path> LF data .RE See below for a detailed description of the data command . In both formats <mode> is the type of file entry, specified in octal . Git only supports the following modes: '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 100644 or 644 :A normal (not -executable) file . The majority of files in most projects use this mode . If in doubt, this is what you want . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 100755 or 755 :A normal, but executable, file . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 120000 :A symlink, the content of the file will be the link target . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 160000 :A gitlink, SHA -1 of the object refers to a commit in another repository . Git links can only be specified by SHA or through a commit mark . They are used to implement submodules . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 040000 :A subdirectory . Subdirectories can only be specified by SHA or through a tree mark set with --import -marks . In both formats <path> is the complete path of the file to be added (if not already existing) or modified (if already existing) . A <path> string must use UNIX -style directory separators (forward slash / ),may contain any byte other than LF ,and must not start with double quote ( " ). A path can use C -style string quoting; this is accepted in all cases and mandatory if the filename starts with double quote or contains LF . In C -style quoting, the complete name should be surrounded with double quotes, and any LF ,backslash, or double quote characters must be escaped by preceding them with a backslash (e .g ., "path/with\ n, \ \ and \ in it ). The value of <path> must be in canonical form . That is it must not: '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 contain an empty directory component (e .g . foo//bar is invalid), '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 end with a directory separator (e .g . foo/ is invalid), '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 start with a directory separator (e .g . /foo is invalid), '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 contain the special component . or . . (e .g . foo/./bar and foo/. ./bar are invalid) . The root of the tree can be represented by an empty string as <path> . It is recommended that <path> always be encoded using UTF -8 . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 filedelete Included in a commit command to remove a file or recursively delete an entire directory from the branch . If the file or directory removal makes its parent directory empty, the parent directory will be automatically removed too . This cascades up the tree until the first non -empty directory or the root is reached . .RS 4
(AqD (Aq SP <path> LF .RE here <path> is the complete path of the file or subdirectory to be removed from the branch . See filemodify above for a detailed description of <path> . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 filecopy Recursively copies an existing file or subdirectory to a different location within the branch . The existing file or directory must exist . If the destination exists it will be completely replaced by the content copied from the source . .RS 4
(AqC (Aq SP <path> SP <path> LF .RE here the first <path> is the source location and the second <path> is the destination . See filemodify above for a detailed description of what <path> may look like . To use a source path that contains SP the path must be quoted . A filecopy command takes effect immediately . Once the source location has been copied to the destination any future commands applied to the source location will not impact the destination of the copy . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 filerename Renames an existing file or subdirectory to a different location within the branch . The existing file or directory must exist . If the destination exists it will be replaced by the source directory . .RS 4
(AqR (Aq SP <path> SP <path> LF .RE here the first <path> is the source location and the second <path> is the destination . See filemodify above for a detailed description of what <path> may look like . To use a source path that contains SP the path must be quoted . A filerename command takes effect immediately . Once the source location has been renamed to the destination any future commands applied to the source location will create new files there and not impact the destination of the rename . Note that a filerename is the same as a filecopy followed by a filedelete of the source location . There is a slight performance advantage to using filerename ,but the advantage is so small that it is never worth trying to convert a delete/add pair in source material into a rename for fast -import . This filerename command is provided just to simplify frontends that already have rename information and don want bother with decomposing it into a filecopy followed by a filedelete . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 filedeleteall Included in a commit command to remove all files (and also all directories) from the branch . This command resets the internal branch structure to have no files in it, allowing the frontend to subsequently add all interesting files from scratch . .RS 4
(Aqdeleteall (Aq LF .RE This command is extremely useful if the frontend does not know (or does not care to know) what files are currently on the branch, and therefore cannot generate the proper filedelete commands to update the content . Issuing a filedeleteall followed by the needed filemodify commands to set the correct content will produce the same results as sending only the needed filemodify and filedelete commands . The filedeleteall approach may however require fast -import to use slightly more memory per active branch (less than 1 MiB for even most large projects); so frontends that can easily obtain only the affected paths for a commit are encouraged to do so . 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 notemodify Included in a commit <notes_ref> command to add a new note annotating a <commit-ish> or change this annotation contents . Internally it is similar to filemodify 100644 on <commit-ish> path (maybe split into subdirectories) . It not advised to use any other commands to write to the <notes_ref> tree except filedeleteall to delete all existing notes in this tree . This command has two different means of specifying the content of the note .
External data format The data content for the note was already supplied by a prior blob command . The frontend just needs to connect it to the commit that is to be annotated . .RS 4
(AqN (Aq SP <dataref> SP <commit -ish> LF .RE Here <dataref> can be either a mark reference ( :<idnum> )set by a prior blob command, or a full 40 -byte SHA -1 of an existing Git blob object .
Inline data format The data content for the note has not been supplied yet . The frontend wants to supply it as part of this modify command . .RS 4
(AqN (Aq SP (Aqinline (Aq SP <commit -ish> LF data .RE See below for a detailed description of the data command . In both formats <commit-ish> is any of the commit specification expressions also accepted by from (see above) .
" mark "Arranges for fast -import to save a reference to the current object, allowing the frontend to recall this object at a future point in time, without knowing its SHA -1 . Here the current object is the object creation command the mark command appears within . This can be commit , tag ,and blob ,but commit is the most common usage . .RS 4
(Aqmark (Aq SP (Aq: (Aq <idnum> LF .RE where <idnum> is the number assigned by the frontend to this mark . The value of <idnum> is expressed as an ASCII decimal integer . The value 0 is reserved and cannot be used as a mark . Only values greater than or equal to 1 may be used as marks . New marks are created automatically . Existing marks can be moved to another object simply by reusing the same <idnum> in another mark command .
" original-oid "Provides the name of the object in the original source control system . fast -import will simply ignore this directive, but filter processes which operate on and modify the stream before feeding to fast -import may have uses for this information .RS 4
(Aqoriginal -oid (Aq SP <object -identifier> LF .RE where <object-identifer> is any string not containing LF .
" tag "Creates an annotated tag referring to a specific commit . To create lightweight (non -annotated) tags see the reset command below . .RS 4
(Aqtag (Aq SP <name> LF (Aqfrom (Aq SP <commit -ish> LF original -oid? (Aqtagger (Aq (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF data .RE where <name> is the name of the tag to create . Tag names are automatically prefixed with refs/tags/ when stored in Git, so importing the CVS branch symbol RELENG-1_0 -FINAL would use just RELENG-1_0 -FINAL for <name> ,and fast -import will write the corresponding ref as refs/tags/RELENG-1_0 -FINAL . The value of <name> must be a valid refname in Git and therefore may contain forward slashes . As LF is not valid in a Git refname, no quoting or escaping syntax is supported here . The from command is the same as in the commit command; see above for details . The tagger command uses the same format as committer within commit ;again see above for details . The data command following tagger must supply the annotated tag message (see below for data command syntax) . To import an empty tag message use a 0 length data . Tag messages are free -form and are not interpreted by Git . Currently they must be encoded in UTF -8, as fast -import does not permit other encodings to be specified . Signing annotated tags during import from within fast -import is not supported . Trying to include your own PGP/GPG signature is not recommended, as the frontend does not (easily) have access to the complete set of bytes which normally goes into such a signature . If signing is required, create lightweight tags from within fast -import with reset ,then create the annotated versions of those tags offline with the standard gittag process .
" reset "Creates (or recreates) the named branch, optionally starting from a specific revision . The reset command allows a frontend to issue a new from command for an existing branch, or to create a new branch from an existing commit without creating a new commit . .RS 4
(Aqreset (Aq SP <ref> LF ( (Aqfrom (Aq SP <commit -ish> LF)? LF? .RE For a detailed description of <ref> and <commit-ish> see above under commit and from . The LF after the command is optional (it used to be required) . The reset command can also be used to create lightweight (non -annotated) tags . For example: .RS 4
reset refs/tags/938 from :938 .RE would create the lightweight tag refs/tags/938 referring to whatever commit mark :938 references .
" blob "Requests writing one file revision to the packfile . The revision is not connected to any commit; this connection must be formed in a subsequent commit command by referencing the blob through an assigned mark . .RS 4
(Aqblob (Aq LF mark? original -oid? data .RE The mark command is optional here as some frontends have chosen to generate the Git SHA -1 for the blob on their own, and feed that directly to commit . This is typically more work than it worth however, as marks are inexpensive to store and easy to use .
" data "Supplies raw data (for use as blob/file content, commit messages, or annotated tag messages) to fast -import . Data can be supplied using an exact byte count or delimited with a terminating line . Real frontends intended for production -quality conversions should always use the exact byte count format, as it is more robust and performs better . The delimited format is intended primarily for testing fast -import . Comment lines appearing within the <raw> part of data commands are always taken to be part of the body of the data and are therefore never ignored by fast -import . This makes it safe to import any file/message content whose lines might start with # .
Exact byte count format The frontend must specify the number of bytes of data . .RS 4
(Aqdata (Aq SP <count> LF <raw> LF? .RE where <count> is the exact number of bytes appearing within <raw> . The value of <count> is expressed as an ASCII decimal integer . The LF on either side of <raw> is not included in <count> and will not be included in the imported data . The LF after <raw> is optional (it used to be required) but recommended . Always including it makes debugging a fast -import stream easier as the next command always starts in column 0 of the next line, even if <raw> did not end with an LF .
Delimited format A delimiter string is used to mark the end of the data . fast -import will compute the length by searching for the delimiter . This format is primarily useful for testing and is not recommended for real data . .RS 4
(Aqdata (Aq SP (Aq<< (Aq <delim> LF <raw> LF <delim> LF LF? .RE where <delim> is the chosen delimiter string . The string <delim> must not appear on a line by itself within <raw> ,as otherwise fast -import will think the data ends earlier than it really does . The LF immediately trailing <raw> is part of <raw> . This is one of the limitations of the delimited format, it is impossible to supply a data chunk which does not have an LF as its last byte . The LF after <delim>LF is optional (it used to be required) .
" checkpoint "Forces fast -import to close the current packfile, start a new one, and to save out all current branch refs, tags and marks . .RS 4
(Aqcheckpoint (Aq LF LF? .RE Note that fast -import automatically switches packfiles when the current packfile reaches --max -pack -size, or 4 GiB, whichever limit is smaller . During an automatic packfile switch fast -import does not update the branch refs, tags or marks . As a checkpoint can require a significant amount of CPU time and disk IO (to compute the overall pack SHA -1 checksum, generate the corresponding index file, and update the refs) it can easily take several minutes for a single checkpoint command to complete . Frontends may choose to issue checkpoints during extremely large and long running imports, or when they need to allow another Git process access to a branch . However given that a 30 GiB Subversion repository can be loaded into Git through fast -import in about 3 hours, explicit checkpointing may not be necessary . The LF after the command is optional (it used to be required) .
" progress "Causes fast -import to print the entire progress line unmodified to its standard output channel (file descriptor 1) when the command is processed from the input stream . The command otherwise has no impact on the current import, or on any of fast -import internal state . .RS 4
(Aqprogress (Aq SP <any> LF LF? .RE The <any> part of the command may contain any sequence of bytes that does not contain LF . The LF after the command is optional . Callers may wish to process the output through a tool such as sed to remove the leading part of the line, for example: .RS 4
frontend | git fast -import | sed (Aqs/^progress // (Aq .RE Placing a progress command immediately after a checkpoint will inform the reader when the checkpoint has been completed and it can safely access the refs that fast -import updated .
" get-mark "Causes fast -import to print the SHA -1 corresponding to a mark to stdout or to the file descriptor previously arranged with the --cat -blob -fd argument . The command otherwise has no impact on the current import; its purpose is to retrieve SHA -1s that later commits might want to refer to in their commit messages . .RS 4
(Aqget -mark (Aq SP (Aq: (Aq <idnum> LF .RE See To Commands below for details about how to read this output safely .
" cat-blob "Causes fast -import to print a blob to a file descriptor previously arranged with the --cat -blob -fd argument . The command otherwise has no impact on the current import; its main purpose is to retrieve blobs that may be in fast -import memory but not accessible from the target repository . .RS 4
(Aqcat -blob (Aq SP <dataref> LF .RE The <dataref> can be either a mark reference ( :<idnum> )set previously or a full 40 -byte SHA -1 of a Git blob, preexisting or ready to be written . Output uses the same format as gitcat -file --batch : .RS 4
<sha1> SP (Aqblob (Aq SP <size> LF <contents> LF .RE This command can be used where a filemodify directive can appear, allowing it to be used in the middle of a commit . For a filemodify using an inline directive, it can also appear right before the data directive . See To Commands below for details about how to read this output safely .
" ls "Prints information about the object at a path to a file descriptor previously arranged with the --cat -blob -fd argument . This allows printing a blob from the active commit (with cat-blob )or copying a blob or tree from a previous commit for use in the current one (with filemodify ). The ls command can also be used where a filemodify directive can appear, allowing it to be used in the middle of a commit .
Reading from the active commit This form can only be used in the middle of a commit . The path names a directory entry within fast -import active commit . The path must be quoted in this case . .RS 4
(Aqls (Aq SP <path> LF .RE
Reading from a named tree The <dataref> can be a mark reference ( :<idnum> )or the full 40 -byte SHA -1 of a Git tag, commit, or tree object, preexisting or waiting to be written . The path is relative to the top level of the tree named by <dataref> . .RS 4
(Aqls (Aq SP <dataref> SP <path> LF .RE See filemodify above for a detailed description of <path> . Output uses the same format as gitls -tree <tree> --<path> : .RS 4
<mode> SP ( (Aqblob (Aq | (Aqtree (Aq | (Aqcommit (Aq) SP <dataref> HT <path> LF .RE The <dataref> represents the blob, tree, or commit object at <path> and can be used in later get-mark , cat-blob , filemodify ,or ls commands . If there is no file or subtree at that path, gitfast -import will instead report .RS 4
missing SP <path> LF .RE See To Commands below for details about how to read this output safely .
" feature "Require that fast -import supports the specified feature, or abort if it does not . .RS 4
(Aqfeature (Aq SP <feature> ( (Aq= (Aq <argument>)? LF .RE The <feature> part of the command may be any one of the following:
date -format, export -marks, relative -marks, no -relative -marks, force Act as though the corresponding command -line option with a leading -- was passed on the command line (see OPTIONS, above) .
import -marks, import -marks -if -exists Like --import -marks except in two respects: first, only one "feature import -marks" or "feature import -marks -if -exists" command is allowed per stream; second, an --import -marks= or --import -marks -if -exists command -line option overrides any of these "feature" commands in the stream; third, "feature import -marks -if -exists" like a corresponding command -line option silently skips a nonexistent file .
get -mark, cat -blob, ls Require that the backend support the get-mark , cat-blob ,or ls command respectively . Versions of fast -import not supporting the specified command will exit with a message indicating so . This lets the import error out early with a clear message, rather than wasting time on the early part of an import before the unsupported command is detected .
notes Require that the backend support the notemodify (N) subcommand to the commit command . Versions of fast -import not supporting notes will exit with a message indicating so .
done Error out if the stream ends without a done command . Without this feature, errors causing the frontend to end abruptly at a convenient point in the stream can go undetected . This may occur, for example, if an import front end dies in mid -operation without emitting SIGTERM or SIGKILL at its subordinate git fast -import instance .
" option "Processes the specified option so that git fast -import behaves in a way that suits the frontend needs . Note that options specified by the frontend are overridden by any options the user may specify to git fast -import itself . .RS 4
(Aqoption (Aq SP <option> LF .RE The <option> part of the command may contain any of the options listed in the OPTIONS section that do not change import semantics, without the leading -- and is treated in the same way . Option commands must be the first commands on the input (not counting feature commands), to give an option command after any non -option command is an error . The following command -line options change import semantics and may therefore not be passed as option: '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 date -format '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 import -marks '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 export -marks '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 cat -blob -fd '-04' '+03' .sp -1
" done "If the done feature is not in use, treated as if EOF was read . This can be used to tell fast -import to finish early . If the --done command -line option or featuredone command is in use, the done command is mandatory and marks the end of the stream .
mkfifo fast -import -output frontend <fast -import -output | git fast -import >fast -import -output .RE A frontend set up this way can use progress , get-mark , ls ,and cat-blob commands to read information from the import in progress . To avoid deadlock, such frontends must completely consume any pending output from progress , ls , get-mark ,and cat-blob before performing writes to fast -import that might block .
$ cat >in <<END_OF_INPUT # my very first test commit commit refs/heads/master committer Shawn O . Pearce <spearce> 19283 -0400 # who is that guy anyway? data <<EOF this is my commit EOF M 644 inline .gitignore data <<EOF .gitignore EOF M 777 inline bob END_OF_INPUT .RE .RS 4
$ git fast -import <in fatal: Corrupt mode: M 777 inline bob fast -import: dumping crash report to .git/fast_import_crash_8434 .RE .RS 4
$ cat .git/fast_import_crash_8434 fast -import crash report: fast -import process: 8434 parent process : 1391 at Sat Sep 1 00:58:12 2007 .RE .RS 4
fatal: Corrupt mode: M 777 inline bob .RE .RS 4
Most Recent Commands Before Crash --------------------------------- # my very first test commit commit refs/heads/master committer Shawn O . Pearce <spearce> 19283 -0400 # who is that guy anyway? data <<EOF M 644 inline .gitignore data <<EOF * M 777 inline bob .RE .RS 4
Active Branch LRU ----------------- active_branches = 1 cur, 5 max .RE .RS 4
pos clock name ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1) 0 refs/heads/master .RE .RS 4
Inactive Branches ----------------- refs/heads/master: status : active loaded dirty tip commit : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 old tree : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 cur tree : 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 commit clock: 0 last pack : .RE .RS 4
------------------- END OF CRASH REPORT .RE