fd

floppy disk device

TLDR

Recursively find files matching the given pattern in the current directory

$ fd [pattern]
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Find files that begin with "foo"
$ fd ['^foo']
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Find files with a specific extension
$ fd --extension [txt]
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Find files in a specific directory
$ fd [pattern] [path/to/directory]
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Include ignored and hidden files in the search
$ fd --hidden --no-ignore [pattern]
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Execute a command on each search result returned
$ fd [pattern] --exec [command]
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SYNOPSIS

fd [-HIEsiaLp0hV] [-d depth] [-t filetype] [-e ext] [-E exclude] [-c when] [-j num] [-x cmd] [pattern] [path...]

DESCRIPTION

fd is a simple, fast and user-friendly alternative to find(1).

By default fd uses regular expressions for the pattern. However, this can be changed to use simple glob patterns with the '--glob' option.

OPTIONS

-H, --hidden

Include hidden files and directories in the search results (default: hidden files and directories are skipped). The flag can be overridden with '--no-hidden'.

-I, --no-ignore

Show search results from files and directories that would otherwise be ignored by

  • .gitignore

  • .git/info/exclude

  • The global gitignore configuration (by default $HOME/.config/git/ignore)

  • .ignore

  • .fdignore

  • The global fd ignore file (usually $HOME/.config/fd/ignore )

The flag can be overridden with '--ignore'.

-u, --unrestricted

Perform an unrestricted search, including ignored and hidden files. This is an alias for '--hidden --no-ignore'.

--no-ignore-vcs

Show search results from files and directories that would otherwise be ignored by gitignore files including .gitignore, .git/info/exclude, and the global gitignore configuration (core.excludesFile git setting, which defaults to $HOME/.config/git/ignore). The flag can be overridden with '--ignore-vcs'.

--no-ignore-parent

Show search results from files and directories that would otherwise be ignored by gitignore files in parent directories.

-s, --case-sensitive

Perform a case-sensitive search. By default, fd uses case-insensitive searches, unless the pattern contains an uppercase character (smart case).

-i, --ignore-case

Perform a case-insensitive search. By default, fd uses case-insensitive searches, unless the pattern contains an uppercase character (smart case).

-g, --glob

Perform a glob-based search instead of a regular expression search. If combined with the '--full-path' option, '**' can be used to match multiple path components.

--regex

Perform a regular-expression based search (default). This can be used to override --glob.

-F, --fixed-strings

Treat the pattern as a literal string instead of a regular expression. Note that this also performs substring comparison. If you want to match on an exact filename, consider using '--glob'.

-a, --absolute-path

Shows the full path starting from the root as opposed to relative paths. The flag can be overridden with '--relative-path'.

-l, --list-details

Use a detailed listing format like 'ls -l'. This is basically an alias for '--exec-batch ls -l' with some additional 'ls' options. This can be used to see more metadata, to show symlink targets and to achieve a deterministic sort order.

-L, --follow

By default, fd does not descend into symlinked directories. Using this flag, symbolic links are also traversed. The flag can be overridden with '--no-follow'.

-p, --full-path

By default, the search pattern is only matched against the filename (or directory name). Using this flag, the pattern is matched against the full path.

-0, --print0

Separate search results by the null character (instead of newlines). Useful for piping results to xargs.

--max-results count

Limit the number of search results to 'count' and quit immediately.

-1

Limit the search to a single result and quit immediately. This is an alias for '--max-results=1'.

-q, --quiet

When the flag is present, the program does not print anything and will instead exit with a code of 0 if there is at least one search result. Otherwise, the exit code will be 1. This is mainly for usage in scripts and can be faster than checking for output because the search can be stopped early after the first match. --has-results can be used as an alias.

--show-errors

Enable the display of filesystem errors for situations such as insufficient permissions or dead symlinks.

--strip-cwd-prefix

By default, relative paths are prefixed with './' when the output goes to a non interactive terminal (TTY). Use this flag to disable this behaviour.

--one-file-system, --mount, --xdev

By default, fd will traverse the file system tree as far as other options dictate. With this flag, fd ensures that it does not descend into a different file system than the one it started in. Comparable to the -mount or -xdev filters of find(1).

-h, --help

Print help information.

-V, --version

Print version information.

-d, --max-depth d

Limit directory traversal to at most d levels of depth. By default, there is no limit on the search depth.

--min-depth d

Only show search results starting at the given depth. See also: '--max-depth' and '--exact-depth'.

--exact-depth d

Only show search results at the exact given depth. This is an alias for '--min-depth <depth> --max-depth <depth>'.

--prune

Do not traverse into matching directories.

-t, --type filetype

Filter search by type:

f, file

regular files

d, directory

directories

l, symlink

symbolic links

s, socket

sockets

p, pipe

named pipes (FIFOs)

x, executable

executable (files)

e, empty

empty files or directories

This option can be specified more than once to include multiple file types. Searching for '--type file --type symlink' will show both regular files as well as symlinks. Note that the 'executable' and 'empty' filters work differently: '--type executable' implies '--type file' by default. And '--type empty' searches for empty files and directories, unless either '--type file' or '--type directory' is specified in addition.

Examples: - Only search for files: fd --type file … fd -tf … - Find both files and symlinks fd --type file --type symlink … fd -tf -tl … - Find executable files: fd --type executable fd -tx - Find empty files: fd --type empty --type file fd -te -tf - Find empty directories: fd --type empty --type directory fd -te -td

-e, --extension ext

Filter search results by file extension ext. This option can be used repeatedly to allow for multiple possible file extensions.

If you want to search for files without extension, you can use the regex '^[^.]+$' as a normal search pattern.

-E, --exclude pattern

Exclude files/directories that match the given glob pattern. This overrides any other ignore logic. Multiple exclude patterns can be specified. Examples: --exclude '*.pyc' --exclude node_modules

--ignore-file path

Add a custom ignore-file in '.gitignore' format. These files have a low precedence.

-c, --color when

Declare when to colorize search results:

auto

Colorize output when standard output is connected to terminal (default).

never

Do not colorize output.

always

Always colorize output.

-j, --threads num

Set number of threads to use for searching & executing (default: number of available CPU cores).

-S, --size size

Limit results based on the size of files using the format <+-><NUM><UNIT>

'+'

file size must be greater than or equal to this

'-'

file size must be less than or equal to this

If neither '+' nor '-' is specified, file size must be exactly equal to this.

'NUM'

The numeric size (e.g. 500)

'UNIT'

The units for NUM. They are not case-sensitive. Allowed unit values:

'b'

bytes

'k'

kilobytes (base ten, 10^3 = 1000 bytes)

'm'

megabytes

'g'

gigabytes

't'

terabytes

'ki'

kibibytes (base two, 2^10 = 1024 bytes)

'mi'

mebibytes

'gi'

gibibytes

'ti'

tebibytes

--changed-within date|duration

Filter results based on the file modification time. Files with modification times greater than the argument will be returned. The argument can be provided as a duration (10h, 1d, 35min) or as a specific point in time in either full RFC3339 format with time zone, or as a date or datetime in the local time zone (YYYY-MM-DD or YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS). --change-newer-than can be used as an alias.

Examples: --changed-within 2weeks --change-newer-than "2018-10-27 10:00:00"

--changed-before date|duration

Filter results based on the file modification time. Files with modification times less than the argument will be returned. The argument can be provided as a duration (10h, 1d, 35min) or as a specific point in time in either full RFC3339 format with time zone, or as a date or datetime in the local time zone (YYYY-MM-DD or YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS). --change-older-than can be used as an alias.

Examples: --changed-before "2018-10-27 10:00:00" --change-older-than 2weeks

-o, --owner [user][:group]

Filter files by their user and/or group. Format: [(user|uid)][:(group|gid)]. Either side is optional. Precede either side with a '!' to exclude files instead.

Examples: --owner john --owner :students --owner "!john:students"

--base-directory path

Change the current working directory of fd to the provided path. This means that search results will be shown with respect to the given base path. Note that relative paths which are passed to fd via the positional path argument or the --search-path option will also be resolved relative to this directory.

--path-separator separator

Set the path separator to use when printing file paths. The default is the OS-specific separator ('/' on Unix, '\' on Windows).

--search-path search-path

Provide paths to search as an alternative to the positional path argument. Changes the usage to 'fd [FLAGS/OPTIONS] --search-path PATH --search-path PATH2 [PATTERN]'

-x, --exec command

Execute command for each search result in parallel (use --threads=1 for sequential command execution).

Note that all subsequent positional arguments are considered to be arguments to the command - not to fd. It is therefore recommended to place the -x/--exec option last. Alternatively, you can supply a ';' argument to end the argument list and continue with more fd options. Most shells require ';' to be escaped: '\;'. This option can be specified multiple times, in which case all commands are run for each file found, in the order they are provided. In that case, you must supply a ';' argument for all but the last commands.

The following placeholders are substituted before the command is executed:

{}

path (of the current search result)

{/}

basename

{//}

parent directory

{.}

path without file extension

{/.}

basename without file extension

If no placeholder is present, an implicit "{}" at the end is assumed.

Examples:

- find all *.zip files and unzip them:

fd -e zip -x unzip

- find *.h and *.cpp files and run "clang-format -i .." for each of them:

fd -e h -e cpp -x clang-format -i

- Convert all *.jpg files to *.png files:

fd -e jpg -x convert {} {.}.png

-X, --exec-batch command

Execute command once, with all search results as arguments. One of the following placeholders is substituted before the command is executed:

{}

path (of all search results)

{/}

basename

{//}

parent directory

{.}

path without file extension

{/.}

basename without file extension

If no placeholder is present, an implicit "{}" at the end is assumed.

Like --exec, this can be used multiple times, in which case each command will be run in the order given.

Examples:

- Find all test_*.py files and open them in your favorite editor:

fd -g 'test_*.py' -X vim

Note that this executes a single "vim" process with all search results as arguments.

- Find all *.rs files and count the lines with "wc -l ...":

fd -e rs -X wc -l

--batch-size size

Maximum number of arguments to pass to the command given with -X. If the number of results is greater than the given size, the command given with -X is run again with remaining arguments. A batch size of zero means there is no limit (default), but note that batching might still happen due to OS restrictions on the maximum length of command lines.

PATTERN SYNTAX

The regular expression syntax used by fd is documented here:

https://docs.rs/regex/1.0.0/regex/#syntax

The glob syntax is documented here:

https://docs.rs/globset/#syntax

ENVIRONMENT

LS_COLORS

Determines how to colorize search results, see dircolors(1).

NO_COLOR

Disables colorized output.

XDG_CONFIG_HOME, HOME

Used to locate the global ignore file. If XDG_CONFIG_HOME is set, use $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/fd/ignore. Otherwise, use $HOME/.config/fd/ignore.

EXAMPLES

Find files and directories that match the pattern 'needle':

$ fd needle

Start a search in a given directory (/var/log):

$ fd nginx /var/log

Find all Python files (all files with the extension .py) in the current directory:

$ fd -e py

Open all search results with vim:

$ fd pattern -X vim

SEE ALSO

find(1)

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