estimate file space usage
List the sizes of a directory and any subdirectories, in the given unit (B/KiB/MiB)
List the sizes of a directory and any subdirectories, in human-readable form (i.e. auto-selecting the appropriate unit for each size)
Show the size of a single directory, in human-readable units
List the human-readable sizes of a directory and of all the files and directories within it
List the human-readable sizes of a directory and any subdirectories, up to N levels deep
List the human-readable size of all .jpg files in subdirectories of the current directory, and show a cumulative total at the end
du [OPTION]... [FILE]...
du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F
Summarize device usage of the set of FILEs, recursively for directories.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
- -0, --null
end each output line with NUL, not newline
- -a, --all
write counts for all files, not just directories
print apparent sizes rather than device usage; although the apparent size is usually smaller, it may be larger due to holes in ('sparse') files, internal fragmentation, indirect blocks, and the like
- -B, --block-size=SIZE
scale sizes by SIZE before printing them; e.g., '-BM' prints sizes in units of 1,048,576 bytes; see SIZE format below
- -b, --bytes
equivalent to '--apparent-size --block-size=1'
- -c, --total
produce a grand total
- -D, --dereference-args
dereference only symlinks that are listed on the command line
- -d, --max-depth=N
print the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize
summarize device usage of the NUL-terminated file names specified in file F; if F is -, then read names from standard input
equivalent to --dereference-args (-D)
- -h, --human-readable
print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
list inode usage information instead of block usage
- -L, --dereference
dereference all symbolic links
- -l, --count-links
count sizes many times if hard linked
- -P, --no-dereference
don't follow any symbolic links (this is the default)
- -S, --separate-dirs
for directories do not include size of subdirectories
like -h, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
- -s, --summarize
display only a total for each argument
- -t, --threshold=SIZE
exclude entries smaller than SIZE if positive, or entries greater than SIZE if negative
show time of the last modification of any file in the directory, or any of its subdirectories
show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status
show times using STYLE, which can be: full-iso, long-iso, iso, or +FORMAT; FORMAT is interpreted like in 'date'
- -X, --exclude-from=FILE
exclude files that match any pattern in FILE
exclude files that match PATTERN
- -x, --one-file-system
skip directories on different file systems
display this help and exit
output version information and exit
Display values are in units of the first available SIZE from --block-size, and the DU_BLOCK_SIZE, BLOCK_SIZE and BLOCKSIZE environment variables. Otherwise, units default to 1024 bytes (or 512 if POSIXLY_CORRECT is set).
The SIZE argument is an integer and optional unit (example: 10K is 10*1024). Units are K,M,G,T,P,E,Z,Y (powers of 1024) or KB,MB,... (powers of 1000). Binary prefixes can be used, too: KiB=K, MiB=M, and so on.
PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression). The pattern ? matches any one character, whereas * matches any string (composed of zero, one or multiple characters). For example, *.o will match any files whose names end in .o. Therefore, the command
will skip all files and subdirectories ending in .o (including the file .o itself).
GNU coreutils online help:
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Copyright © 2022 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU
GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
Full documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/du> or available locally via: info '(coreutils) du invocation'
Written by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, Paul Eggert, and Jim Meyering.