git-reset

Reset current HEAD to the specified state

TLDR

Unstage everything

>_ git reset
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Unstage specific file(s)

>_ git reset [path/to/file(s)]
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Unstage portions of a file

>_ git reset -p [path/to/file]
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Undo the last commit, keeping its changes (and any further uncommitted changes) in the filesystem

>_ git reset HEAD~
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Undo the last two commits, adding their changes to the index, i.e. staged for commit

>_ git reset --soft HEAD~2
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Discard any uncommitted changes, staged or not (for only unstaged changes, use git checkout)

>_ git reset --hard
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Reset the repository to a given commit, discarding committed, staged and uncommitted changes since then

>_ git reset --hard [commit]
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SYNOPSIS



gitreset [ -q] [<tree -ish>] [ --] <paths> ... gitreset ( --patch | -p) [<tree -ish>] [ --] [<paths> ...] gitreset [ --soft | --mixed [ -N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [ -q] [<commit>]

DESCRIPTION


In the first and second form, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index . In the third form, set the current branch head ( HEAD )to <commit> ,optionally modifying index and working tree to match . The <tree-ish> / <commit> defaults to HEAD in all forms .

gitreset [ -q] [<tree -ish>] [ --] <paths> ... This form resets the index entries for all <paths> to their state at <tree-ish> . (It does not affect the working tree or the current branch .)
This means that gitreset <paths> is the opposite of gitadd <paths> . This command is equivalent to gitrestore [ --source=<tree -ish>] --staged <paths> . . . .
After running gitreset <paths> to update the index entry, you can use git-restore (1) to check the contents out of the index to the working tree . Alternatively, using git-restore (1) and specifying a commit with --source ,you can copy the contents of a path out of a commit to the index and to the working tree in one go .

gitreset ( --patch | -p) [<tree -ish>] [ --] [<paths> ...] Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index and <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD ). The chosen hunks are applied in reverse to the index .
This means that gitreset -p is the opposite of gitadd -p ,i .e . you can use it to selectively reset hunks . See the Mode section of git-add (1) to learn how to operate the --patch mode .

gitreset [<mode>] [<commit>] This form resets the current branch head to <commit> and possibly updates the index (resetting it to the tree of <commit> )and the working tree depending on <mode> . If <mode> is omitted, defaults to --mixed . The <mode> must be one of the following:

--soft Does not touch the index file or the working tree at all (but resets the head to <commit> ,just like all modes do) . This leaves all your changed files "Changes to be committed", as gitstatus would put it .

--mixed Resets the index but not the working tree (i .e ., the changed files are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not been updated . This is the default action .
If -N is specified, removed paths are marked as intent -to -add (see git-add (1)).

--hard Resets the index and working tree . Any changes to tracked files in the working tree since <commit> are discarded .

--merge Resets the index and updates the files in the working tree that are different between <commit> and HEAD ,but keeps those which are different between the index and working tree (i .e . which have changes which have not been added) . If a file that is different between <commit> and the index has unstaged changes, reset is aborted .
In other words, --merge does something like a gitread -tree -u -m <commit> ,but carries forward unmerged index entries .

--keep Resets index entries and updates files in the working tree that are different between <commit> and HEAD . If a file that is different between <commit> and HEAD has local changes, reset is aborted .
See "Reset, restore and revert" in git (1)for the differences between the three commands .

OPTIONS

-q, --quiet, --no -quiet Be quiet, only report errors . The default behavior is set by the reset.quiet config option . --quiet and --no -quiet will override the default behavior .

EXAMPLES

Undo add


.RS 4
$ edit (1) $ git add frotz .c filfre .c $ mailx (2) $ git reset (3) $ git pull git://info .example .com/ nitfol (4) .RE
1. Youare happily working on something, and find the changes in these files are in good order . You do not want to see them when you run gitdiff ,because you plan to work on other files and changes with these files are distracting .
2. Somebodyasks you to pull, and the changes sound worthy of merging .
3. However,you already dirtied the index (i .e . your index does not match the HEAD commit) . But you know the pull you are going to make does not affect frotz.c or filfre.c ,so you revert the index changes for these two files . Your changes in working tree remain there .
4. Thenyou can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c changes still in the working tree .


Undo a commit and redo
.RS 4
$ git commit . . . $ git reset --soft HEAD^ (1) $ edit (2) $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD (3) .RE
1. Thisis most often done when you remembered what you just committed is incomplete, or you misspelled your commit message, or both . Leaves working tree as it was before "reset" .
2. Makecorrections to working tree files .
3. "reset"copies the old head to .git/ORIG_HEAD ;redo the commit by starting with its log message . If you do not need to edit the message further, you can give -C option instead .
See also the --amend option to git-commit (1).


Undo a commit, making it a topic branch
.RS 4
$ git branch topic/wip (1) $ git reset --hard HEAD~3 (2) $ git switch topic/wip (3) .RE
1. Youhave made some commits, but realize they were premature to be in the master branch . You want to continue polishing them in a topic branch, so create topic/wip branch off of the current HEAD .
2. Rewindthe master branch to get rid of those three commits .
3. Switchto topic/wip branch and keep working .


Undo commits permanently
.RS 4
$ git commit . . . $ git reset --hard HEAD~3 (1) .RE
1. Thelast three commits ( HEAD , HEAD^ ,and HEAD~2 )were bad and you do not want to ever see them again . Do not do this if you have already given these commits to somebody else . (See the "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in git-rebase (1) for the implications of doing so .)


Undo a merge or pull
.RS 4
$ git pull (1) Auto -merging nitfol CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result . $ git reset --hard (2) $ git pull . topic/branch (3) Updating from 41223 . . . to 13134 . . . Fast -forward $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD (4) .RE
1. Tryto update from the upstream resulted in a lot of conflicts; you were not ready to spend a lot of time merging right now, so you decide to do that later .
2. "pull"has not made merge commit, so gitreset --hard which is a synonym for gitreset --hard HEAD clears the mess from the index file and the working tree .
3. Mergea topic branch into the current branch, which resulted in a fast -forward .
4. Butyou decided that the topic branch is not ready for public consumption yet . "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original tip of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD ,so resetting hard to it brings your index file and the working tree back to that state, and resets the tip of the branch to that commit .


Undo a merge or pull inside a dirty working tree
.RS 4
$ git pull (1) Auto -merging nitfol Merge made by recursive . nitfol | 20 +++++ ---- . . . $ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD (2) .RE
1. Evenif you may have local modifications in your working tree, you can safely say gitpull when you know that the change in the other branch does not overlap with them .
2. Afterinspecting the result of the merge, you may find that the change in the other branch is unsatisfactory . Running gitreset --hard ORIG_HEAD will let you go back to where you were, but it will discard your local changes, which you do not want . gitreset --merge keeps your local changes .


Interrupted workflow Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you are in the middle of a large change . The files in your working tree are not in any shape to be committed yet, but you need to get to the other branch for a quick bugfix .
.RS 4
$ git switch feature ;# you were working in "feature" branch and $ work work work ;# got interrupted $ git commit -a -m "snapshot WIP" (1) $ git switch master $ fix fix fix $ git commit ;# commit with real log $ git switch feature $ git reset --soft HEAD^ ;# go back to WIP state (2) $ git reset (3) .RE
1. Thiscommit will get blown away so a throw -away log message is OK .
2. Thisremoves the WIP commit from the commit history, and sets your working tree to the state just before you made that snapshot .
3. Atthis point the index file still has all the WIP changes you committed as snapshotWIP . This updates the index to show your WIP files as uncommitted .
See also git-stash (1).


Reset a single file in the index Suppose you have added a file to your index, but later decide you do not want to add it to your commit . You can remove the file from the index while keeping your changes with git reset .
.RS 4
$ git reset --frotz .c (1) $ git commit -m "Commit files in index" (2) $ git add frotz .c (3) .RE
1. Thisremoves the file from the index while keeping it in the working directory .
2. Thiscommits all other changes in the index .
3. Addsthe file to the index again .


Keep changes in working tree while discarding some previous commits Suppose you are working on something and you commit it, and then you continue working a bit more, but now you think that what you have in your working tree should be in another branch that has nothing to do with what you committed previously . You can start a new branch and reset it while keeping the changes in your working tree .
.RS 4
$ git tag start $ git switch -c branch1 $ edit $ git commit . . . (1) $ edit $ git switch -c branch2 (2) $ git reset --keep start (3) .RE
1. Thiscommits your first edits in branch1 .
2. Inthe ideal world, you could have realized that the earlier commit did not belong to the new topic when you created and switched to branch2 (i .e . gitswitch -c branch2 start ),but nobody is perfect .
3. Butyou can use reset--keep to remove the unwanted commit after you switched to branch2 .


Split a commit apart into a sequence of commits Suppose that you have created lots of logically separate changes and committed them together . Then, later you decide that it might be better to have each logical chunk associated with its own commit . You can use git reset to rewind history without changing the contents of your local files, and then successively use gitadd -p to interactively select which hunks to include into each commit, using gitcommit -c to pre -populate the commit message .
.RS 4
$ git reset -N HEAD^ (1) $ git add -p (2) $ git diff --cached (3) $ git commit -c HEAD@{1} (4) . . . (5) $ git add . . . (6) $ git diff --cached (7) $ git commit . . . (8) .RE
1. First,reset the history back one commit so that we remove the original commit, but leave the working tree with all the changes . The -N ensures that any new files added with HEAD are still marked so that gitadd -p will find them .
2. Next,we interactively select diff hunks to add using the gitadd -p facility . This will ask you about each diff hunk in sequence and you can use simple commands such as "yes, include this", "No don include this" or even the very powerful "edit" facility .
3. Oncesatisfied with the hunks you want to include, you should verify what has been prepared for the first commit by using gitdiff --cached . This shows all the changes that have been moved into the index and are about to be committed .
4. Next,commit the changes stored in the index . The -c option specifies to pre -populate the commit message from the original message that you started with in the first commit . This is helpful to avoid retyping it . The HEAD@{1} is a special notation for the commit that HEAD used to be at prior to the original reset commit (1 change ago) . See git-reflog (1) for more details . You may also use any other valid commit reference .
5. Youcan repeat steps 2 -4 multiple times to break the original code into any number of commits .
6. Nowyou split out many of the changes into their own commits, and might no longer use the patch mode of gitadd ,in order to select all remaining uncommitted changes .
7. Onceagain, check to verify that you included what you want to . You may also wish to verify that git diff doesn show any remaining changes to be committed later .
8. Andfinally create the final commit .

DISCUSSION


The tables below show what happens when running:
.RS 4
git reset --option target .RE

to reset the HEAD to another commit ( target )with the different reset options depending on the state of the files .
In these tables, A , B , C and D are some different states of a file . For example, the first line of the first table means that if a file is in state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in state C in HEAD and in state D in the target, then gitreset --soft target will leave the file in the working tree in state A and in the index in state B . It resets (i .e . moves) the HEAD (i .e . the tip of the current branch, if you are on one) to target (which has the file in state D ).
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- A B C D --soft A B D --mixed A D D --hard D D D --merge (disallowed) --keep (disallowed) .RE
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- A B C C --soft A B C --mixed A C C --hard C C C --merge (disallowed) --keep A C C .RE
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- B B C D --soft B B D --mixed B D D --hard D D D --merge D D D --keep (disallowed) .RE
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- B B C C --soft B B C --mixed B C C --hard C C C --merge C C C --keep B C C .RE
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- B C C D --soft B C D --mixed B D D --hard D D D --merge (disallowed) --keep (disallowed) .RE
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- B C C C --soft B C C --mixed B C C --hard C C C --merge B C C --keep B C C .RE
reset--merge is meant to be used when resetting out of a conflicted merge . Any mergy operation guarantees that the working tree file that is involved in the merge does not have a local change with respect to the index before it starts, and that it writes the result out to the working tree . So if we see some difference between the index and the target and also between the index and the working tree, then it means that we are not resetting out from a state that a mergy operation left after failing with a conflict . That is why we disallow --merge option in this case .
reset--keep is meant to be used when removing some of the last commits in the current branch while keeping changes in the working tree . If there could be conflicts between the changes in the commit we want to remove and the changes in the working tree we want to keep, the reset is disallowed . That why it is disallowed if there are both changes between the working tree and HEAD ,and between HEAD and the target . To be safe, it is also disallowed when there are unmerged entries .
The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged entries:
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- X U A B --soft (disallowed) --mixed X B B --hard B B B --merge B B B --keep (disallowed) .RE
.RS 4
working index HEAD target working index HEAD ---------------------------------------------------- X U A A --soft (disallowed) --mixed X A A --hard A A A --merge A A A --keep (disallowed) .RE
X means any state and U means an unmerged index .

GIT


Part of the git (1)suite

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