Create a new commit object
gitcommit -tree <tree> [( -p <parent>) ...] gitcommit -tree [( -p <parent>) ...] [ -S[<keyid>]] [( -m <message>) ...] [( -F <file>) ...] <tree>
<tree> An existing tree object .
-p <parent> Each -p indicates the id of a parent commit object .
-m <message> A paragraph in the commit log message . This can be given more than once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph .
-F <file> Read the commit log message from the given file . Use - to read from the standard input . This can be given more than once and the content of each file becomes its own paragraph .
-S[<keyid>], --gpg -sign[=<keyid>] GPG -sign commits . The keyid argument is optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be stuck to the option without a space .
--no -gpg -sign Do not GPG -sign commit, to countermand a --gpg -sign option given earlier on the command line .
2.3 all parent object ids '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 author name, email and date '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 committer name and email and the commit time . While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and committer information is taken from the following environment variables, if set: .RS 4
GIT_AUTHOR_NAME GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL GIT_AUTHOR_DATE GIT_COMMITTER_NAME GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL GIT_COMMITTER_DATE .RE (nb "<", ">" and " \ n"s are stripped) In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information is taken from the configuration items user .name and user .email, or, if not present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set, system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken from /etc/mailname and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when that file does not exist) . A commit comment is read from stdin . If a changelog entry is not provided via "<" redirection, gitcommit -tree will just wait for one to be entered and terminated with ^D .
Git internal format It is <unixtimestamp> <time zone offset> ,where <unixtimestamp> is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch . <timezone offset> is a positive or negative offset from UTC . For example CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is +0100 .
RFC 2822 The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example Thu,07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200 .
ISO 8601 Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example 2005-04 -07T22:13:13 . The parser accepts a space instead of the T character as well . .sp 1 an-trap an-no-space-flag 1 an-break-flag 1
+1 Note -1
In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats: YYYY.MM .DD , MM/DD/YYYY and DD.MM .YYYY .
2.3 The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences of bytes . There is no encoding translation at the core level . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 Path names are encoded in UTF -8 normalization form C . This applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as path names in command line arguments, environment variables and config files ( .git/config (see git-config (1)), gitignore (5), gitattributes (5) and gitmodules (5)). Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as sequences of non -NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions (except on Mac and Windows) . Therefore, using non -ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings . However, repositories created on such systems will not work properly on UTF -8 -based systems (e .g . Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa . Additionally, many Git -based tools simply assume path names to be UTF -8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly . '-04' '+03' .sp -1
2.3 Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF -8, but other extended ASCII encodings are also supported . This includes ISO -8859 -x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF -16/32, EBCDIC and CJK multi -byte encodings (GBK, Shift -JIS, Big5, EUC -x, CP9xx etc .) . Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF -8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF -8 on projects . If all participants of a particular project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git does not forbid it . However, there are a few things to keep in mind . '-04' 1. '+01' .sp -1
" 1." 4.2 gitcommit and gitcommit -tree issues a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look like a valid UTF -8 string, unless you explicitly say your project uses a legacy encoding . The way to say this is to have i18n .commitencoding in .git/config file, like this: .RS 4
[i18n] commitEncoding = ISO -8859 -1 .RE Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of i18n.commitEncoding in its encoding header . This is to help other people who look at them later . Lack of this header implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF -8 . '-04' 2. '+01' .sp -1
" 2." 4.2 gitlog , gitshow , gitblame and friends look at the encoding header of a commit object, and try to re -code the log message into UTF -8 unless otherwise specified . You can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding in .git/config file, like this: .RS 4
[i18n] logOutputEncoding = ISO -8859 -1 .RE If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of i18n.commitEncoding is used instead . Note that we deliberately chose not to re -code the commit log message when a commit is made to force UTF -8 at the commit object level, because re -coding to UTF -8 is not necessarily a reversible operation .