aircrack-ng is an 802.11 WEP, 802.11i WPA/WPA2, and 802.11w WPA2 key
It can recover the WEP key once enough encrypted packets have been cap‐
tured with airodump-ng. This part of the aircrack-ng suite determines
the WEP key using two fundamental methods. The first method is via the
PTW approach (Pyshkin, Tews, Weinmann). The main advantage of the PTW
approach is that very few data packets are required to crack the WEP
key. The second method is the FMS/KoreK method. The FMS/KoreK method
incorporates various statistical attacks to discover the WEP key and
uses these in combination with brute forcing.
Additionally, the program offers a dictionary method for determining
the WEP key. For cracking WPA/WPA2 pre-shared keys, a wordlist (file or
stdin) or an airolib-ng has to be used.
Force the attack mode: 1 or wep for WEP (802.11) and 2 or wpa
for WPA/WPA2 PSK (802.11i and 802.11w).
Select the target network based on the ESSID. This option is
also required for WPA cracking if the SSID is cloaked. For SSID
containing special characters, see https://www.aircrack-
-b or --bssid
Select the target network based on the access point MAC address.
Set this option to the number of CPUs to use (only available on
SMP systems). By default, it uses all available CPUs
-q If set, no status information is displayed.
-C or --combine
Merges all those APs MAC (separated by a comma) into a virtual
Write the key into a file. Overwrites the file if it already ex‐
Static WEP cracking options:
-c Search alpha-numeric characters only.
-t Search binary coded decimal characters only.
-h Search the numeric key for Fritz!BOX
-d or --debug
Specify mask of the key. For example: A1:XX:CF
Only keep the IVs coming from packets that match this MAC ad‐
dress. Alternatively, use -m ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff to use all and
every IVs, regardless of the network (this disables ESSID and
Specify the length of the key: 64 for 40-bit WEP, 128 for
104-bit WEP, etc., until 512 bits of length. The default value
Only keep the IVs that have this key index (1 to 4). The default
behavior is to ignore the key index in the packet, and use the
By default, this parameter is set to 2. Use a higher value to
increase the bruteforce level: cracking will take more time, but
with a higher likelihood of success.
There are 17 KoreK attacks. Sometimes one attack creates a huge
false positive that prevents the key from being found, even with
lots of IVs. Try -k 1, -k 2, ... -k 17 to disable each attack
-x or -x0
Disable last keybytes bruteforce (not advised).
-x1 Enable last keybyte bruteforcing (default)
-x2 Enable last two keybytes bruteforcing.
-X Disable bruteforce multithreading (SMP only).
-s Shows ASCII version of the key at the right of the screen.
-y This is an experimental single brute-force attack which should
only be used when the standard attack mode fails with more than
one million IVs.
-z Uses PTW (Andrei Pyshkin, Erik Tews and Ralf-Philipp Weinmann)
attack (default attack).
-P or --ptw-debug
PTW debug: 1 Disable klein, 2 PTW.
-K Use KoreK attacks instead of PTW.
-D or --wep-decloak
WEP decloak mode.
-1 or --oneshot
Run only 1 try to crack key with PTW.
Specify maximum number of IVs to use.
-V or --visual-inspection
Run in visual inspection mode. Can only be used when using Ko‐
WEP and WPA-PSK cracking options
Path to a dictionary file for wpa cracking. Separate filenames
with comma when using multiple dictionaries. Specify "-" to use
stdin. Here is a list of wordlists: https://www.aircrack-
ng.org/doku.php?id=faq#where_can_i_find_good_wordlists In order
to use a dictionary with hexadecimal values, prefix the dictio‐
nary with "h:". Each byte in each key must be separated by ':'.
When using with WEP, key length should be specified using -n.
-N or --new-session
Create a new cracking session. It allows one to interrupt crack‐
ing session and restart at a later time (using -R or --restore-
session). Status files are saved every 5 minutes. It does not
overwrite existing session file.
-R or --restore-session
Restore and continue a previously saved cracking session. This
parameter is to be used alone, no other parameter should be
specified when starting aircrack-ng (all the required informa‐
tion is in the session file).
Create Elcomsoft Wireless Security Auditor (EWSA) Project file
Create Hashcat v3.6+ Capture file (HCCAPX).
Create Hashcat Capture file (HCCAP).
-S WPA cracking speed test.
WPA cracking speed test execution length in seconds.
Path to the airolib-ng database. Cannot be used with '-w'.
This manual page was written by Adam Cecile for
the Debian system (but may be used by others). Permission is granted
to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the
GNU General Public License, Version 2 or any later version published by
the Free Software Foundation On Debian systems, the complete text of
the GNU General Public License can be found in /usr/share/common-li‐