Linux Command Library
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basic
Basic
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Tips

comm

compare two sorted files line by line

- Produce three tab-separated columns: lines only in first file, lines only in second file and common lines:
comm [file1] [file2]

- Print only lines common to both files:
comm -12 [file1] [file2]

- Print only lines common to both files, reading one file from stdin:
cat [file1] | comm -12 - [file2]

- Get lines only found in first file, saving the result to a third file:
comm -23 [file1] [file2] > [file1_only]

- Print lines only found in second file, when the files aren't sorted:
comm -13 <(sort [file1]) <(sort [file2])

comm [,OPTION/]... ,FILE1 FILE2/

Compare sorted files FILE1 and FILE2 line by line.

When FILE1 or FILE2 (not both) is -, read standard input.

With no options, produce three-column output. Column one contains lines unique to FILE1, column two contains lines unique to FILE2, and column three contains lines common to both files.

-1
suppress column 1 (lines unique to FILE1)
-2
suppress column 2 (lines unique to FILE2)
-3
suppress column 3 (lines that appear in both files)
--check-order
check that the input is correctly sorted, even if all input lines are pairable
--nocheck-order
do not check that the input is correctly sorted
--output-delimiter=,STR/
separate columns with STR
--total
output a summary
-z, --zero-terminated
line delimiter is NUL, not newline
--help
display this help and exit
--version
output version information and exit

Note, comparisons honor the rules specified by 'LC_COLLATE'.

comm -12 file1 file2
Print only lines present in both file1 and file2.
comm -3 file1 file2
Print lines in file1 not in file2, and vice versa.

Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

GNU coreutils online help: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/> Report comm translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

Copyright © 2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

join(1), uniq(1)

Full documentation at: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/comm> or available locally via: info '(coreutils) comm invocation'

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