Anacron can be used to execute commands periodically, with a frequency specified in days. Unlike cron(8), it does not assume that the machine is running continuously. Hence, it can be used on machines that aren't running 24 hours a day, to control daily, weekly, and monthly jobs that are usually controlled by cron.
When executed, Anacron reads a list of jobs from a configuration file, normally /etc/anacrontab (see anacrontab(5)). This file contains the list of jobs that Anacron controls. Each job entry specifies a period in days, a delay in minutes, a unique job identifier, and a shell command.
For each job, Anacron checks whether this job has been executed in the last n days, where n is the period specified for that job. If not, Anacron runs the job's shell command, after waiting for the number of minutes specified as the delay parameter.
After the command exits, Anacron records the date in a special timestamp file for that job, so it can know when to execute it again. Only the date is used for the time calculations. The hour is not used.
When there are no more jobs to be run, Anacron exits.
Anacron only considers jobs whose identifier, as specified in the anacrontab matches any of the job command-line arguments. The job arguments can be shell wildcard patterns (be sure to protect them from your shell with adequate quoting). Specifying no job arguments, is equivalent to specifying "*" (That is, all jobs will be considered).
Unless the -d option is given (see below), Anacron forks to the background when it starts, and the parent process exits immediately.
Unless the -s or -n options are given, Anacron starts jobs immediately when their delay is over. The execution of different jobs is completely independent.
If a job generates any output on its standard output or standard error, the output is mailed to the user running Anacron (usually root), or to the address contained by the MAILTO environment variable in the crontab, if such exists.
Informative messages about what Anacron is doing are sent to syslogd(8) under facility cron, priority notice. Error messages are sent at priority error.
"Active" jobs (i.e. jobs that Anacron already decided to run and now wait for their delay to pass, and jobs that are currently being executed by Anacron), are "locked", so that other copies of Anacron won't run them at the same time.
Anacron was originally conceived and implemented by Christian Schwarz <email@example.com>.
The current implementation is a complete rewrite by Itai Tzur <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
The code base was maintained by Sean 'Shaleh' Perry <shaleh@(debian.org|valinux.com)>.
Since 2004, it is maintained by Pascal Hakim <pasc@(debian.org|redellipse.net)>.